Explain How You Found Out That Lucy Has Ada-scid. – AL 288-1, known as Lucy or Dinkinesh (dạnọ số, meaning “you are amazing” in Amharic), is a collection of hundreds of fossilized bones representing 40 percent of the female hominin species Australopithecus afarsis. It was discovered in 1974 in Ethiopia, at Hadar, a site in the Awash Valley in the Afar Triangle, by paleoanthropologist Donald Johanson of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.
The Lucy specimen is an early australopithecine and has been dated to about 3.2 million years ago. The skeleton contains a small skull similar to that of non-hominin apes, and evidence of walking that was bipedal and upright, similar to that of humans (and other hominins); this combination supports the view of human evolution that duplication preceded the increase in brain size.
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A 2016 study suggests that Australopithecus afarsis also had extensive tree-dwelling habitat, although its cessation is debated.
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“Lucy” was named after the Beatles’ 1967 song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds,” which was played loudly and repeatedly at the expedition camp each evening after the excavation team’s first day of work at the excavation site. After the discovery was made public, Lucy attracted international attention and became a celebrity at the time.
Lucy became famous around the world, and the story of her discovery and reconstruction was published in a book by Johanson and Edey. Beginning in 2007, the fossil assemblages and associated artifacts were publicly exhibited on an extended six-year tour of the United States; the exhibition was called Lucy’s Legacy: The Hidden Treasures of Ethiopia. The risks of damaging the unique fossils were debated, and other museums preferred to display projections of the fossil group.
French geologist and paleoanthropologist Maurice Taieb discovered the Hadar Formation for paleoanthropology in 1970 in Ethiopia’s Far Triangle in Hararghe Province; he recognized its potential as a likely repository of fossils and artifacts of human origin. Taieb founded the International Afar Research Expedition (IARE) and invited three leading international scientists on a research trip to the region. They were: Donald Johanson, American paleoanthropologist and curator at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, who later founded the Institute of Human Origins, now part of Arizona State University; Mary Leakey, a well-known British paleoanthropologist; and Yves Copps (1934–2022), a paleoanthropologist from France who was appointed professor in 1983 at the Collège de France, considered the most prestigious research institution in France. Soon a trip was organized with four American participants and the Frch strain; in the fall of 1973, the team began to explore the sites around Hadar for signs of human origin.
In November 1971, near the end of the first field season, Johanson observed a fossil upper d tibia that was slightly notched anteriorly. A lower femur was found nearby, and when he assembled them, the angle of the knee joint clearly showed that this fossil, reference AL 129-1, was an upright walking hominin. This fossil was later dated to over three million years old – much older than other hominin fossils known at the time. The site was about 2.5 kilometers (1.6 mi) from where “Lucy” was later found, in rock layers 60 meters (200 ft) deeper than where the Lucy fragments were found.
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The team returned the following year for a second field season and found hominin jaws. On the morning of November 24, 1974, near the Awash River, Johanson abandoned his plan to update his field notes and entered Tom Gray’s graduate study to search for fossil bones at Site 162.
According to Johanson’s (later published) reports, he and Tom Gray spent two hours on the hot and humid plain, surveying the dusty terrain. Eventually, Johanson decided to look at the bottom of a small culvert that other workers had checked at least twice before. Nothing was immediately apparent at first glance, but as they turned to leave the fossil, Johanson’s eye fell; a fragment of a hand bone lay on the slope. Next to it was a fragment of the back of a small skull. They spotted part of the femur (knee bone) a few feet (about one meter) away. As they explored further, they found more and more bones on the slope, including vertebrae, part of the pelvis, ribs and pieces of the jaw. They marked the point and returned to camp, excited to find so many pieces from a single hominin.
In the afternoon, all members of the expedition returned to the gully to carve out part of the site and prepare it for careful excavation and collection, which actually took three weeks. That first evening was celebrated in the camp; at some point during the event, fossil AL 288-1 was named “Lucy”, after the Beatles song “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” (1967), which was played loudly and repeatedly on the camp tape recorder.
Over the next three weeks, the team found hundreds of pieces or bone fragments without duplicates, confirming their initial hypothesis that the pieces were from an individual; it was eventually determined that an impressive 40 percent of the hominin skeleton was found at the site. Johanson judged it to be a female based on the entire pelvic bone and sacrum alone, which indicated the width of the pelvic opening.
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It weighed 29 kg (64 lb) and (after reconstruction) looked like a chimpanzee. The creature had a small chimpanzee-like brain, but the pelvis and leg bones functioned almost exactly like those of modern humans, definitively indicating that Lucy’s species were hominins that stood and walked upright.
With permission from the Ethiopian government, Johanson took all the skeletal fragments to the Cleveland Museum of Natural History in Ohio, where they were stabilized and reconstructed by anthropologist Ow Lovejoy. Lucy took a prehuman hominin and a fossil hominin, quite a public announcement; she was almost a household name then. Some nine years later, and now all together, she was brought back to Ethiopia.
Additional discoveries of A. afarsis were made in the 1970s and beyond, allowing anthropologists to better understand the ranges of morphological variability and sexual dimorphism within the species. A more complete skeleton of a related hominid, Ardipithecus, was found in the same Awash Valley in 1992. Like “Lucy,” “Ardi” was a successful hominin species, but it was dated to 4.4 million years ago and evolved much earlier than the afarsis species. Excavating, preserving and analyzing the Ardi specimen was very difficult and time-consuming; work began in 1992, and the results were not fully published until October 2009.
Maurice Taieb and James Aronson first attempted to estimate the age of fossils using potassium and argon radiometric dating in 1974 in Aronson’s laboratory at Case Western Reserve University. These efforts have been hampered by several factors: the rocks in the reclamation area have been chemically altered or reworked by volcanic activity; certain crystals were very rare in the sample material; and there was a complete lack of goblet courses in Hadar. (Lucy’s skeleton is found in the part of the Hadar sequence that accumulated at the fastest rate of deposition, which accounts in part for its excellent preservation.)
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Fieldwork in Hadar was interrupted in the winter of 1976-77. When it resumed three years later in 1990, Derek York at the University of Toronto updated the more precise argon-argon technology. By 1992, Aronson and Robert Walter had found two matching samples of volcanic ash—an older layer of ash was about 60 feet (18 m) below the fossil, and a younger layer just one meter lower, accurately indicating the age of the sample’s deposition. Argon-argon dated these samples to 3.22 and 3.18 million years by Walter at the Geochronology Laboratory of the Institute of Human Origins.
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Indicating that she usually moved with an upright gait. His femur has a mix of ancestral and derived traits. The femoral head is small and the femoral neck is short; both are primitive properties. However, the greater trochanter is clearly a derived trait as it is short and human-like – but unlike humans it is positioned higher than the head of the femur. The ratio of humerus (arm) to femur (arm) length is 84.6%, compared to 71.8% in modern humans and 97.8% in common chimpanzees, indicating that either the arms of A. afarsis became short, the legs became long, or both occurred simultaneously. Lucy also had lordosis, or lumbar curvature, another indicator of normal bipedalism.
She appears to have had physiologically flat feet that have not been confused with pes planus or any other pathology, although other apharisic individuals appear to have flat feet.
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Johanson discovered Lucy’s left innominate bone and sacrum. Although the sacrum was very well preserved, it is
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