How Did Lenin Plan To Apply Marxism To Russia

How Did Lenin Plan To Apply Marxism To Russia – Vladimir Lenin founded the Russian Communist Party, led the Bolshevik Revolution, and was the architect of the Soviet state. He was the posthumous source of “Leninism” to form Marxism-Leninism, which Lenin’s successors codified and combined with Marx’s work to form the communist worldview. He is considered the greatest revolutionary leader and thinker after Marx.

Widely regarded as one of the most influential and controversial political figures of the 20th century, Vladimir Lenin launched the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in 1917 and later became the first leader of the newly formed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

How Did Lenin Plan To Apply Marxism To Russia

He was born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov on April 22, 1870 in Simbirsk, Russia, later renamed Ulyanovsk in his honor. In 1901, he took the surname Lenin while working underground. His family was well educated and the third of six children, Lenin was close to his parents and siblings.

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School was a central part of Lenin’s childhood. His parents, educated and highly cultured, instilled in their children, especially Vladimir, a desire to learn. A voracious reader, Lenin came first in his high school class, showing a special gift for Latin and Greek.

But life was not easy for Lenin and his family. Two circumstances in particular shaped his life. The first occurred when Lenin was a boy and his father was a school inspector, threatened with early retirement by a government suspicious of the influence of public schools on Russian society.

A more significant and tragic situation occurred in 1887 when Alexander, then a student, was arrested and executed because he was part of a group plotting to assassinate Lenin’s older brother, Tsar Alexander III. Since his father was already dead, Lenin now became a family man.

Alexander’s involvement in opposition politics was not an isolated incident in Lenin’s family. Indeed, all of Lenin’s brothers and sisters would participate in revolutionary activities to some extent.

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The year his brother was executed, Lenin entered Kazan University to study law. However, he was expelled during his first term for participating in student demonstrations, and his time there was cut short.

Exiled to his grandfather’s estate in the village of Kokushkino, Lenin moved in with his sister Anna, who was ordered to live there by the police due to her suspicious activities.

Nikolai Chernyshevsky tells the story of Rakhmetov, a character single-mindedly devoted to revolutionary politics. Lenin also drew on the writings of German philosopher Karl Marx, whose book is famous

Eventually, Lenin finished school in 1892 and earned a law degree. He moved to Samara, where his client base was mostly Russian peasants. Their struggles against what Lenin saw as a class-biased legal system reinforced his Marxist beliefs.

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Over time, Lenin focused more energy on revolutionary politics. In the mid-1890s, he left Samara for a new life in St. Petersburg, then the Russian capital. There Lenin connected with other like-minded Marxists and began to participate more and more actively in their activities.

This work did not go unnoticed and in December 1895 Lenin and several other Marxist leaders were arrested. Lenin was exiled to Siberia for three years. He was joined by his girlfriend and future wife, Nadežda Krupskaja.

Released from exile, he stayed in Munich, where Lenin and others founded Iskra, a newspaper to unite Russian and European Marxists, and returned to St. Petersburg. Petersburg and strengthened his leading role in the revolutionary movement.

At the Second Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903, the influential Lenin advocated a modernized community of party leadership, which would lead a network of grassroots party organizations and their workers. “Give us an organization of revolutionaries and we will overthrow Russia!” Lenin said.

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Lenin’s call was soon supported by events on the ground. In 1904, Russia went to war with Japan. The conflict had a profound effect on Russian society. After numerous defeats that burdened the country’s domestic budget, citizens from all walks of life began to express their dissatisfaction with the country’s political structure and demanded reforms.

On January 9, 1905, the situation came to a head when a group of unarmed workers in St. Petersburg took their concerns directly to the City Palace to petition Czar Nicholas II. They were met by security forces, who opened fire on the group, killing and wounding hundreds. This crisis set the stage for what became known as the Russian Revolution of 1905.

Hoping to appease his citizens, the Tsar issued his October Manifesto, offering several political concessions, notably the creation of an elected legislative assembly called the Duma.

But Lenin was not satisfied. His frustration spread to his fellow Marxists, especially the group known as the Mensheviks, led by Julius Martov. The problems centered on the party structure and the driving forces of the revolution to take complete control of Russia. While his colleagues believed that the bourgeoisie should have power, Lenin strongly distrusted that part of the population. Instead, he argued that a true and complete revolution that could lead to a socialist revolution that could spread beyond Russia must be led by the country’s proletariat, the workers.

World War I And The Russian Revolution (1914–1924)

However, from the Menshevik perspective, Lenin’s ideas actually led to a one-man dictatorship over the people he claimed to empower. The two factions have been at loggerheads since the Second Party Congress, which gave Lenin’s faction, known as the Bolsheviks, a slim majority. The fighting continued until the Party Congress in Prague in 1912, when Lenin formally broke away and created a new, separate entity.

During World War I, Lenin was again exiled, this time settling in Switzerland. As always, his mind turned to revolutionary politics. During that time he wrote and published

(1916), the work that defined the future leader, he argued that war was the natural outcome of international capitalism.

In 1917, tired, starving, and war-weary Russia overthrew the Tsars. Lenin soon returned home, perhaps sensing his own path to power, and quickly denounced the country’s newly formed provisional government, assembled by a group of bourgeois liberal party leaders. Lenin called instead for a Soviet government directly ruled by soldiers, peasants and workers.

The Young Lenin

In late 1917, Lenin led what would soon become known as the October Revolution, but it was primarily a coup. A three-year civil war ensued. The Soviet government under Lenin faced incredible difficulties. Anti-Soviet forces, led mostly by former Tsarist generals and admirals, fought desperately to overthrow Lenin’s Red regime. The Allies helped them in World War I, who supplied the group with money and soldiers.

Determined to win at any cost, Lenin proved ruthless in his pursuit of power. He launched a vicious campaign known as the Red Terror, in which Lenin eliminated opposition among the civilian population.

In August 1918, Lenin narrowly escaped an assassination attempt after being seriously wounded by two bullets from a political opponent. His recovery ensured his increased presence among his countrymen, but his health was never the same.

Despite the breadth of opponents, Lenin won. But the country he wanted to lead never materialized. His defeat against an opposition party that wanted to keep Russia bound to the European capitalist system ushered in an era of international retreat for the Lenin-led government. Russia, as he saw it, would be free of the class conflict and international wars that fueled it.

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But the Russia he presided over was in the midst of a bloody civil war that he helped instigate. Hunger and poverty shape much of society. In 1921, Lenin now faced the same peasant uprising that had brought him to power. Threatening the stability of Lenin’s government, widespread strikes broke out in the country’s cities and countryside.

To ease the tension, Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy, which allowed workers to sell grain on the open market.

Lenin suffered a stroke in May 1922, followed by another in December of that year. As his health clearly deteriorated, Lenin turned his thoughts to how to govern the newly formed Soviet Union after he was gone.

Time and again he saw the party and the government drifting away from their revolutionary goals. In early 1923, he issued what he later called his Will, in which a penitent Lenin expressed regret for the dictatorial power that dominated the Soviet government. He was particularly frustrated by Joseph Stalin, General Secretary of the Communist Party, who was beginning to gain great power.

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On March 10, 1923, Lenin’s health suffered another severe blow when he suffered another stroke that left him unable to speak and ended his political career. About 10 months later, on January 21, 1924, he died in what is now the village.

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