How Did Religion Unify Medieval Society – The turbulent centuries that followed the Great Schism of 1054  and the associated climate within the Christian Church gradually gave way to profound changes in European thought and spirituality.
The natural disasters, famines and epidemics that shook Europe intensified the feeling that the urgent need of the hour was the spiritual revival of believers. Consequently, in the five centuries spanning the Great Schism and the Protean Reformation, a whole series of Reformation tendencies transformed into schismatic or heretical movements.
How Did Religion Unify Medieval Society
Concern to preserve the orthodoxy of the faith, on the one hand, and its apolitical character, on the other, led the official church to reject reform initiatives. Moreover, the persecution organized by the church is the bloodiest in the history of Christianity: the triumvirate of the cross, the sword, and the persecution of the Dark Ages. What chance did the global approach have in this medieval landscape?
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The distinction between the ideal Christian life and true spirituality was no longer a taboo subject for anyone in the centuries before the Reformation. Bernard of Clairvaux, the French abbot and a great leader in the reformation of the Benedictine Order, stated unequivocally that Rome’s sins had grown so great that the sinners could no longer notice them. He says that all the prelates and priests have gone out of the way of Rasa and for a long time no one has done any good.
In De calamitatibus temporum, the Italian poet Baptia Mantuanus wrote similarly: “The Arabs sell incense, the Syrians – purple cloth, the Jews – ivory, and here, the priesthood, the sacraments, the altar, prayers, the sky . . . even God, everything is for sale.” .”
Simony, nepotism and greed, along with other anomalies in the religious environment such as church courts and censuses,  the lack of access of believers to the sources of faith – the Bible, the persecution of the Inquisition, etc. , created a climate that inevitably led to pre-Reformation movements such as the Micahs,  Lollards,  United Brethren, Cathars and Waldenses.
Undoubtedly, it was both dynamic and volatile, with religious antagonism in full bloom.
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The eras leading up to the European Renaissance in the late 15th century and the Protestant Reformation in the early 16th century were transformative on several levels. The widespread perception that the Middle Ages was a “dark” period in human history is only partially true.
Indeed, by the end of the Middle Ages, medieval insensitivity and religious persecution were sharply opposed by the emancipation and readiness of the Renaissance spirit. Urbanization, population growth in the 13th century, increased exchange of goods and trade, and the development of agriculture or geographical discoveries are some examples of transformations and events with profound effects on European society.
The diversity of political relations and social, economic and cultural emancipation led, among other things, to a mind consumed by Italian humanism, which emerged in the 14th century as an indicator of the later humanist spirit. Now, the force against medieval imprisonment was the people, their creative freedom and all, as a measure. Creative freedom was explored through the Renaissance, somewhat in contrast to the medieval spirit of disciplining and controlling people’s freedom of exploration.
If Christianity expresses the spiritual person, humanism expresses the natural person. Confined to the medieval paradigm, man did not have free access to the secrets of the Bible or nature through science. Consequently, the Renaissance would bring humanity’s return to nature and the values of ancient classicism.
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Ironically, during the 14th century Italian Renaissance – a precursor to the larger Renaissance that spread throughout Europe – the Catholic Church would declare itself the guardian of this human spirit. It was not a one-size-fits-all approach. On the contrary, the church has always tried to adapt to the currents of general and particular Heor, but in its own way.
The rise of Scholasticism in the 11th century and the rise of the Far University represented some attempt to adapt the rationalist thinking of the Areotelian influence of the Christian Church, to maintain a monopoly of intellectual activity and to supervise the thinking of the faithful. These conflicting attempts to control Christian thought and the apparent inconsistencies of the early church led to an increasingly outspoken resistance movement.
Contrary to the imitation of the Creed scholars of the Renaissance, the enthusiasm of the peasantry in this pre-Reformation century led to a movement of uneducated people robbed of common knowledge by the clerical customs of the time. The suppression of this attitude, as we shall see, will go from intellectual control to force, to the creation of fear, intimidation, and religious extremism.
Beyond religious exclusivity and attempts to dominate the intellectual and educational spheres, the Verne Church also sought to gain ground in the political sphere. The appointment of Pepin the Short, king of the Franks, as the civil leader of the furthest anointed by the Pope was not without consequences. The “Donations of Pepin” of 754 and 756, led to the birth of that Pope.
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Once they became heads of households, popes neglected their religious obligations in favor of political figures. Feudal hierarchies, on the ideological plane, were transferred to the religious sphere.
In socio-political terms, the king exercised his power through feudal overseers; The nobles leased the land and the peasants worked it. This social relationship became analogous to the idea of papal initiation for church organization: God is a feudal king, the pope is the king’s subordinate and deputy, and regional leadership is exercised by bishops.
European monarchs could not have prevented the rise of the papacy if the (pre)Renaissance spirit had not provided the framework for the development of national identity. Using the nascent national consciousness, sovereigns opposed universal food led by universal religious leaders. The growth of cities in the context of the Italian Renaissance led to the formation of nations, empowering national sovereigns who were able to protect reform or even separatist initiatives within the church.
Moreover, the development of trade empowered the middle class and thus supported the kings in their struggle with the religious supremacy of the papacy. The newly affluent middle class was interested in anything that innovated in a humanitarian spirit and their wealth afforded them the time they needed. Hence the interest in the spirit of reform.
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One of the paradoxes of Christianity and another historical curiosity of the Middle Ages is the phenomenon of forced conversion to Christianity. They arose in the context of the 11th and 12th centuries, where Verne’s church was associated with, among other things, the liberation of Jerusalem from Muslim rule and the renewed war against the pagans.
From a global perspective, the Crusades can be interpreted as an attempt at (forced) evangelization, a method of Christian unity through repression, forcing external elements of the Church to conform to internal directions.
Originally an armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem under the banner of the cross, the Crusades appeared among us in the conflict between two continents (Europe and Asia) as well as two religions (Christianity and Islam) and their goal was holy liberation. Places that were under Arab jurisdiction.
Along with these aims of a religious nature, political and economic interests were also pursued. In addition to amassing wealth, the Crusaders sought to create a feudal lifestyle, from which they would derive power, authority, and wealth,  according to the separatist model.
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Finally, in the territories occupied by the Ottomans, the Crusaders were defeated, so that the effects of expansion, restoration of holy places and missionary tone did not have the intended effect.
If the militancy of the Crusades—as an instrument of religious propaganda—was intended to Christianize pagans through intimidation and forced submission, the ecclesiastical courts unleashed a bloody instrument: the Inquisition. As efforts to unify the church with pagan elements outside it failed, unity within the church became an increasingly important concern, and this pretext for internal unity became a driving force.
The Inquisition claimed its origins in an Apulian tradition of rooting heresy, as in the centuries of Christian fur. Its history in the Middle Ages covers the persecution of heresies until 1480, the persecution of witches in the 14th and 15th centuries, and the Spanish Inquisition established in 1480. Through the Inquisition, the Church began to combat heresy within the church and proposed rules to eliminate divisive elements. The main purpose of this ecclesiastical organization was again stated to be “the straining of heretics”.
Paradoxically, the Inquisition had the support of learned men of the day, such as Bonaventure, a 13th-century Italian Franciscan monk, a scholastic theologian and philosopher, and
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