How Does Germination Affect Respiration Rates

How Does Germination Affect Respiration Rates – Changes in dynamics and soil properties of morphological and physiological parameters in cultivation of Miscanthus × giganteus in diesel-contaminated soil

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How Does Germination Affect Respiration Rates

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Investigating Rqs (12.1.5)

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Authors: Anna Szczerba Ana Szczerba Scilit Google Scholar 1 , Agnieszka Płazek Agnieszka Płazek Scilit Google Scholar 1 , Jakub Pastuszak Jakub Pastuszak Scilit, Agnieszka Płazek Agnieszka Płazek Scilit Google Scholar 1 , J akub Pastuszak Jakub Pastuszak Scilit, Google Scholar Preprints Preprints. org Google Scholar 2, * , Marta Horniak Marta Horniak Scilit Google Scholar 1 and Franciszek Dubert Franciszek Dubert Scilit Google Scholar 2

Practical: Investigating Respiration (2.39)

Received: March 2, 2021 / Revised: April 9, 2021 / Received: April 16, 2021 / Posted: April 18, 2021

During germination at low temperatures, protein-rich seeds may have damaged cytoplasmic membranes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of germination temperature on the growth, development and yield of four typical thermophilic soybean species. Seeds were germinated at 10, 15, and 25 °C in the dark. After 48 hours, a portion of the seeds was assayed for amylase and dehydrogenase activity, cell membrane permeability and germination potential. The second part was transferred to the soil and grown until yield. Chlorophyll fluorescence of shoots, fresh (FV) and dry weight (DV), number of pods and seeds, and DV of seeds were analyzed. Plant Resume ‘Abellina’, ‘Malaga’, and ‘Merlin’, which germinated at low temperature, produced the most seeds. The number of seeds is negatively correlated with DV and positively correlated with the number of active reaction centers (RC/CS).

) in all varieties. in your resume. The number of seeds of ‘Abelina’ and ‘Malaga’ showed a positive correlation with PSII (photosystem performance index II), which was the highest among all plants germinated at low temperatures. We recommend cultivating your resume. In cold regions, ‘Abelina’, cvs. “Petrina” and “Malaga” from warm regions.

Legumes are an important group of economic crops and play an important role in human and animal nutrition [1]. Glycine poppy ranks high among Fabaceae plants because its seeds contain more protein (40%) than other legumes. Soybeans are economically very important because they meet the protein needs of the modern population. Soybeans can be a useful substitute for meat and dairy products for humans. Seeds contain almost all amino acids required for human nutrition [2, 3]. Soybeans occupy an important place in the list of plants obtained from vegetable oil. It is widely used as feed for farm animals [4]. Soybean plants are symbiotic with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which absorbs free atmospheric nitrogen. This makes it possible to fertilize crops with nitrogen less extensively [5, 6]. With abundant nodulation, symbiotic nitrogen bacteria can provide soybean plants with up to 100 kg of N per ha [7]. It is important to understand the growth and yield physiology of different soybean varieties, especially in temperate climates. Soybean is a thermophilic plant that requires a soil temperature above 10 °C for germination. The optimum temperature is 25 °C. It grows in various latitudes (50° N-35° S) around the world. Nevertheless, the subtropical regions of South America are the largest soybean growing regions in the world [8, 9, 10]. Soybeans require a minimum of 400 mm of well-distributed rainfall during the vegetative growing season. However, dry weather is required for ripening. Beans can grow in a variety of soils, but the soil should be well-drained, fertile, and rich in calcium with a pH ranging from 5.6 to 7.0. In temperate climates, soybean cultivation is limited by spring and fall frosts and low soil temperatures. It turns out that beans do not tolerate low temperatures. Robison et al. [11] investigated the cold acclimatization potential of eight Glycine poppy cultivars and six Glycine soybean cultivars. All soybean cultivars showed a significant increase in cold tolerance after short acclimatization, but there was no significant difference in tolerance among the investigated genotypes. The authors concluded that domestication did not affect soybean’s overall ability to adapt to low temperatures. Their research confirms that wild species cannot be used as an additional source of genetic diversity in cold tolerance. Beans are short-lived. Photoperiodic requirements and temperature sensitivity limit the growing season and geographic distribution of soybeans. Therefore, it is necessary to advance the sowing time by selecting varieties with a short growing period. Farmers and breeders faced similar challenges when growing maize in temperate climates. Corn produces higher seed yields when planted early. However, yields can be unstable [12]. Soybean yields did not change significantly from 2001 to 2017 in warm regions of China, but an increasing trend was observed in cold regions [13]. According to Zhao et al. [13], mean seed yields were higher in warm regions than in cooler regions. Therefore, selection of more cold-tolerant varieties can reduce the economic risk of soybean cultivation and persuade farmers to increase the acres allocated to these species [14]. The most common soybean variety in Poland is “Abelina”.

Effects Of Growth And Measurement Temperature On Mung Bean Leaf…

Seed germination is a three-step process. The first step is uptake, which consists of rapid uptake of water by the cell wall and colloidal compounds in the cytoplasm, mainly proteins and starches, and DNA repair (approximately 0-24 hours after absorption). Hydrolysis of macromolecular compounds takes place in this step. The second step is the activation of ATP synthesis in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and respiratory chain and the translation of stored mRNA (24–48 h after uptake), while the third step occurs after 48–72 h and is characterized by the formation of radicles [15]. Water uptake by seeds is an important step during germination. The rate of uptake of hydrophilic components of the cell wall, cytoplasm, proteins and carbohydrates is temperature dependent. The higher the temperature, the faster the absorption of moisture. Cold water not only slows down the process, but it also poses a threat to cell membranes that are not adapted to such heat conditions. Legume seeds usually respond to cold by membrane rupture when the water pressure is too high [16]. Under optimal conditions, the absorption process is rapid. However, absorbing cold water from the soil slows it down, making it dangerous to the embryo. Damage can occur when cell membranes do not quickly adapt to the cold and cannot withstand water pressure and rupture [16]. When water enters the dry seeds, the cell membrane is disrupted, resulting in a change in membrane selectivity. An instantaneous response emerges from the rapid leakage of ions and solutes from low molecular weight metabolites [17]. Our initial studies on the effect of low temperature on germination of narrow lupine seeds clearly showed that temperatures below 10 °C significantly reduced germination [18, 19]. It should be noted that lupine has a much lower thermal demand than soybeans. It is important to know the factors that affect germination ability, such as water absorption at low temperatures. This information can help improve seed germination vigor and yield [20]. There are ways to limit the damage from the cold. One of them is seed osmotic pressure and seed wetting at higher temperatures [21]. Cell membranes are mainly composed of phospholipids, proteins, and sterols. Its structure can be modified under the influence of various environmental factors. However, the key factor is temperature. Under the influence of cold (0–5 °C) there is so-called frost hardening, quantitative and qualitative changes in certain structural compounds [22]. Rapid temperature changes in uncured plants cause irreversible damage to membranes, resulting in uncontrolled ion efflux [23, 24]. In addition, as the seed gradually adapts to the cold environment, cell membrane damage can be minimized through changes.

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