How Many Miles Is 5000 Feet

How Many Miles Is 5000 Feet – Atlantic to Med: a historic 5,000+ nautical mile voyage for science. Two autonomous wind-powered vehicles have sailed from Cape Verde to Trieste, Italy, demonstrating how practical technology can be used to enhance ocean measurements.

On July 17, 2020, two unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) known as SD 1030 and SD 1053 completed the first Atlantic-Mediterranean mission. This historic nine-month journey began in Cape Verde, along the coast of West Africa, into the Mediterranean through the Strait of Gibraltar and ended in Trieste, at the head of the Adriatic Sea.

How Many Miles Is 5000 Feet

The distance from launch to extraction, as the crow flies, was more than 5,000 nautical miles (9,260 kilometers or 5,754 miles). However, SD 1030 and SD 1053 actually sailed about 15,015 nautical miles (27,810 kilometers or 17,280 mi) together.

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Click to enlarge and download the 2019-2020 ATL2MED Project Map and Carbon Data Summary.

The project was a public-private partnership between 12 marine research institutes and universities from seven countries. The expedition was conducted in two phases: Phase 1 was a survey of eddies near Cape Verde led by the Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research (GEOMAR) based in Kiel, Germany, and Phase 2 focused on cross-calibration of CO2 measurements at fixed ocean stations. led by the Integrated Carbon Observing System, Ocean Thematic Center (ICOS OTC) based in Bergen, Norway.

Scientists from Mindelo Ocean Science Center (OSCM), Canary Islands Ocean Platform (PLOCAN), Balearic Islands Coastal Observation and Forecast System (SOCIB), Instituto Hidrográfico (IH), Laboratoire Océanographique Villefranche at Sorbonne University (LOV), Le Center National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Istituto di Scienze Marine del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR-ISMAR) and Istituto sui Sistemi Intelligenti per l’CNR-ISSIA (Automazione) del CNRIA) led regional shipments, including comparisons with land-based, glider and other assets.

SD 1030 with the historic city of Trieste, Italy, during the last hours of the ATL2MED project 2019-2020. Courtesy of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS.

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“It was an incredibly ambitious project that presented numerous challenges along the way. The voyage of 5,000 nautical miles had to deal with rapidly rising seas in tropical seas, narrow shipping lanes in the Strait of Gibraltar, light winds, strong currents, pass through nine different economic jurisdictions and interact with six different navies. However, despite the challenges, we are pleased to announce that both vehicles have now arrived in Trieste, having met all primary and secondary mission objectives,” said Founder and CEO Richard Jenkins.

“The world transformed by COVID-19 that they find upon arriving in Trieste is a very different place than the one they sailed into in October, but they sailed on, unaffected by what was happening in the world around them. This trip was an excellent demonstration of the resilience of unmanned systems to continue essential ocean science in challenging times,” Jenkins added.

Deploying from the Canary Islands in October 2019, they traveled south to Cape Verde, off the west coast of Senegal, where they took part in the #MOSESeddyhunt, a multidisciplinary field study involving a team of chemists, biologists and physicists aboard a German research vessel

And various surface and underwater autonomous vehicles, fleets, drifters and aircraft. S were used to search for ocean eddies and to perform high-resolution studies of certain aspects of the eddies.

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After the eddy survey was completed, they moved to the second phase of the project, collecting data at nine fixed ocean stations for cross-calibration and validation: CVOO (Cape Verde Islands), ESTOC (Gran Canaria), LION (France), ANTARES (France), DYFAMED (France), W1M3A (Italy), E2M3A (Italy), PALOMA (Italy) and Miramare (Italy).

On its way to the Mediterranean, it made several laps around MONIZEA, a Portuguese buoy station operated by the Instituto Hidrográfico.

SD 1030 Encounter with Portuguese Navy Gago Coutinho west of the Straits of Gibraltar. Courtesy of Instituto Hidrográfico.

Accompanied by a Spanish Armada patrol vessel and a research vessel from the University of Cadiz, SD 1030 and SD 1053 sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar to enter the Mediterranean – the first autonomous wind-powered vehicles to do so. They then headed north to Spain’s Balearic Islands to carry out a project in partnership with SOCIB, which involved monitoring oceanographic conditions in the area of ​​a tagged sea turtle sailing near a strong cyclonic storm south of Ibiza.

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From there they headed to the French Economic Zone for a comparative study of sailboats along the Nice-Calvi line in collaboration with LOV.

By working with OGS, s fulfilled several goals for return projects in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adriatic Sea. They collected data on potential CO2 emissions to assess air-sea CO2 exchange in the area of ​​volcanism around the Aeolian Islands before rounding Sicily and entering the Adriatic Sea through the Strait of Otranto. They collected data near sea station E2M3A over the southern Adriatic basin and completed a comparative glider study along a transect stretching from Italy to Croatia before heading north to the Gulf of Trieste to complete the mission’s final objective.

During the mission, the ICOS OTC data group helped process the carbon data and transfer it to the ICOS data portal (click to view SD 1030 data or SD 1053 data) and Copernicus in near real time.

“We are grateful and happy for the cooperation with . The team was very helpful and solution-oriented, which was important for such a long-term project like ATL2MED. We were impressed by how much effort they put into the piloting – do they ever sleep?!” said Dr. Ingunn Skjelvan, Research Scientist at the Norwegian Research Center NORCE and Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, and Principal Investigator for Station Certification at ICOS.

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SD 1053 and SD 1030 sail for Miramare Castle, built for Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (younger brother of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria) and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium. Courtesy of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS.

The last two permanent sea stations visited were the ICOS stations PALOMA and Miramare (MAMBO1). Paloma is located in the Gulf of Trieste and Miramare is just off the coast of Trieste in the protected marine area of ​​Miramare, the first marine nature reserve established in Italy in 1986 and home to a rich biodiversity of marine life. Important for research in such sensitive oceans, it is powered by wind for propulsion and solar energy to power the instruments on board. They carry no pollutants, no fuel, no emissions, and like a sailboat, they are quiet and unobtrusive.

The Gulf of Trieste is an area subject to rivers and large seasonal variations – more than 20°C from winter to summer – which greatly affect the variability of the CO2 system. Dense water in the northern Adriatic in winter contributes to a physical pump that absorbs CO2 and transports it deeper.

“A better understanding of these processes is important to assess the potential impacts of coastal acidification in the region, and the data can also help resolve the geographic variability of the air-sea CO2 exchange in the region affected by river discharge,” said Dr. Michele Giani, manager at OGS responsible for the Miramare station. “Our research is based on measurements at fixed sites, so any data that contributes to the measurement of spatial variability around our stations can contribute to a better understanding of which processes are best detected at observation sites. The data will be integrated with our ongoing research into the drivers of the temporal variability of the carbonate system in the northern Adriatic Sea.

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The Mediterranean Sea is considered a small ocean where many of the processes found in the world’s oceans take place, making it particularly interesting for physical, climatic and ecological studies. This is a very productive area, much more than expected, requiring several service stations during the expedition, despite the use of the latest anti-biofeed technology. The project took nine months from start to finish and will serve as a blueprint for how public and private organizations between nations can work together to advance ocean observation.

“The level of productivity in the Mediterranean was surprising, but the speed and efficiency of the stops we made in Cape Verde, France and Italy are a testament to the excellent international cooperation of this project – especially with the added challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic,” said COO Sebastien de Halleux. “Now the team will be working hard to ensure that this series of observations continues over time with the support of public and private funding.”

Close-up of Miramare Castle and SD 1053. Two ATL2MEDs flew several laps around Miramare Ocean Station, which is only 600 meters (1,968 ft) offshore from the castle. Courtesy of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS.

Dr. Skjelvan said that for ICOS OTC, the use of s as a validation platform was the most useful part of the project: “The collected CO2 validation data will help us to certify fixed installations within the ICOS European infrastructure project.” The authorized station provides data on

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