How Many Nucleotides Are In 12 Mrna Codons – The DNA code is indeed the ‘language of life’. It contains instructions for creating a living thing. The DNA code is made up of a simple alphabet of four ‘letters’ called codons and 64 three-letter ‘words’. It may be hard to believe that so much of life’s wonderful diversity is based on a simpler “language” than English, but it’s true.
This code is not literally made up of letters and words. Instead, the four letters represent four single molecules called nucleotides: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G). The order or sequence of these bases creates a unique genetic code.
How Many Nucleotides Are In 12 Mrna Codons
These codon ‘words’ in the genetic code are three nucleotides long, of which there are 64. If you do the math, these are as many three-letter word combinations as you can get with four letters. ATG and CCC are some examples of codons.
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Just as human languages like English have punctuation marks, commas, etc., rather than letters and words, the same is true of the genetic code. For example, instead of capitalizing the beginning of a sentence, the genetic code almost always signals the start of a new instruction with one of those three-letter codons, ATG.
And instead of periods, genes end with one of three different codons: TAG, TAA, or TGA. There are other parts of DNA that are not codons that can act as some sort of mark or signal, for example telling when, where and how strongly a gene should be read.
One of the main ways that DNA encodes information in cells is through genes. Humans have about 20,000 genes. Each gene has instructions for making a specific protein, and each protein performs a specific function in the cell.
For example, the lactase gene contains the instructions for making the lactase protein. Lactase protein breaks down the sugar lactose in milk. People with a defective lactase gene are lactose intolerant.
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The instructions for making these proteins are encoded in the three nucleotide codons discussed above. But the instructions encoded in DNA must be read, just like a set of instructions to be read to build something.
For example, DNA that codes for making the protein lactase may not be able to break down the sugar lactose. Instead, to digest lactose, a cell must first read the gene and then make the protein lactase.
The first step in reading a gene is to transfer information from DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA) using a protein called RNA polymerase (the polymerase that reads genes, such as lactase in humans, is RNA polymerase II). This process is called transcription.
The mRNA is then directed to the protein-making machine inside the cell called a ribosome. This is where the mRNA is translated into the specific protein that contains its instructions. Lactase mRNA is translated into lactase protein on the ribosome.
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A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides in a strand of DNA or RNA. Each codon is like a three-letter word, and all these codons together make up the instructions for DNA (or RNA). DNA and RNA have only 64 possible codons due to only four nucleotides.
61 of the 64 codons code for amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are made by linking together a series of amino acids. Each protein differs in the sequence and number of amino acids it contains. So the DNA code is just the instructions for linking the correct number of amino acids and in the correct order.
The three codons that do not code for amino acids are called stop codons. Think of them as periods at the end of a sentence. They serve as the stop signal that tells the ribosome that it has reached the end of the protein instructions and to stop adding amino acids. In RNA, the thymine (T) nucleotide base is replaced by the uracil (U) nucleotide base. The three stop codons in mRNA are UAG, UAA and UGA.
While 61 codons code for amino acids, humans only have 20, so there are more codons than needed. This is called redundancy. An amino acid can have more than one codon that codes for it. For example, both UUU and UUC code for the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe).
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Redundancy helps reduce the effects of DNA changes. For a protein to function optimally, it must have the right amino acid in the right place. Any change in a gene that changes one amino acid to another can cause a protein to malfunction.
While this may not be a big problem for lactase genes (you should only take lactide when you drink milk), for other genes the effects can be more serious. Sickle cell anemia is a condition where a single amino acid change in the beta globin gene leads to the disease.
Mutations due to redundancy lead to amino acid changes and therefore reduce susceptibility to disease because some changes in DNA, known as silent mutations, will result in the same amino acid. If a C replaces the final U of UCU to form UCC, for example, the codon still produces the same amino acid: serine (Ser). Having more than one codon per amino acid can prevent the formation of a non-functional protein.
Humans, like most organisms, have similar genetic codes with 64 codons that function in the same way. In fact, it is even called the ‘universal genetic code’. For example, ACG encodes for the amino acid threonine (Thr) in humans, cats, and plants.
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However, recent research shows that some bacteria have differently coded codons. For example, the UGA stop codon can encode the amino acid glycine (Gly) in some bacteria. Also, the UGA stop codon can encode tryptophan in the mitochondria of some organisms.
About two percent of the DNA in your cells codes for protein. The rest is sometimes called junk DNA, but scientists may have been a little too quick to call it that. This non-coding DNA has various functions in the cell such as gene regulation. Non-coding DNA can help turn genes on and off, giving proteins a place to attach so they can do their job. Currently, the study of non-coding DNA is an active area of research. UGU GAA Glutamine CAA Glycine Histidine GGU CAU Isoleucine AUU Leucine CUU Lysine Methionine AAA AUG Phenylalanine Proline UUU CCU Serine UCU Threonine ACU Tryptophan Tyrosine Valine UGG Code UAU GUA * has. Some amino acids have multiple mRNA codons. However, there is no code overlap. 1. You should be able to fill in the 3 letter “end code” of the tRNA molecules in the table above. Remember, RNA A pairs with U and G pairs with C. Thymine is absent. Complete the table.
MRNA codons responsible for aligning 20 amino acids each Amino acid code – end of mRNA codons* (anticodon) tRNA Alanine GCU Arginine Asparagine Aspartic acid Cysteine Glutamic acid AGA AAU GUGAAUGUGAAU Oleucine AUU Leucine CUU Lysine Methionine AAA AUG Phenylalanine Proline UUU CCU Serine UCU Threonine ACU Tryptophan Tyrosine Valine UGG UAU GUA * has 64 codons. Some amino acids have multiple mRNA codons. However, there is no code overlap. 1. You should be able to fill in the 3 letter “end code” of the tRNA molecules in the table above. Remember, RNA A pairs with U and G pairs with C. Thymine is absent. Complete the table.
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Duplicate image text: mRNA codons responsible for alignment of each of the 20 amino acids Amino acid code-end of mRNA codons* (antigenic) tRNA Alanine GCU Arginine Asparagine Aspartic acid Cysteine GUGUGUTAMIA acid GAUGUGUTAMIA Histidine GGU CAU Isoleucine AUU Leucine CUU Lysine Methionine AAA AUG Phenylalanine Proline UUU CCU Serine UCU Threonine ACU Tryptophan Tyrosine Valine UGG UAU GUA * There are 64 codons. Some amino acids have multiple mRNA codons. However, there is no code overlap. 1. You should be able to fill in the 3 letter “end code” of the tRNA molecules in the table above. Remember, RNA A pairs with U and G pairs with C. Thymine is absent. Complete the table. The cellular process of transcription generates messenger RNA (mRNA), a mobile molecular copy of one or more genes with a sequence of letters A, C, G, and uracil (U). Translation of mRNA templates translates genes based on nucleotides
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