How Many Protons Does Mercury Have – Home » Science Notes » Chemistry » Elements » Mercury Element Facts (Hg or Atomic Number 80)
Mercury is a shiny, silvery liquid metal. It is the only metallic element in the periodic table that is liquid at room temperature and pressure. Mercury is atomic number 80 with the element symbol Hg. Here is a collection of facts about the element mercury, including its properties, history, and uses.
How Many Protons Does Mercury Have
There is no official discoverer of the element mercury. It was known to the ancient Chinese and Indians who used it for medicinal purposes. Mercury has been found in Egyptian tombs dating back to 1500 BC.
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Mercury’s element symbol “Hg” represents its old name, hydrargyrum. Hydrargyrum means “water-silver”. The modern name refers to the element and Roman god Mercury, after whom the planet Mercury is named. This element’s name dates back to alchemical times, making mercury the only element to retain its alchemical name as an IUPAC name.
Historically, mercury was common in thermometers, manometers, barometers, sphygmomanometers, switches and relays, float valves, and fluorescent lamps. However, the toxicity of mercury led to its replacement with other materials, if possible, so it is rare to find a mercury thermometer or sphymomanometer. It is still widely used in fluorescent lamps and dental amalgams. It is used to make thimerosol, an organometallic compound that preserves some vaccines, cosmetics, and contact lens solutions. In some countries, the topical antiseptic merbromine or Mercurochrome is used. Mercury is used in battery production, gold and silver mining, felt hat production. Although this element is not used much for these applications today, cleaning up the environment from the past is still a concern. Commercially, mercury is used to produce chlorine from sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide from metallic sodium. Mercury fulminate is used as a primer in firearms and pyrotechnics.
Mercury has seven stable isotopes. The most common is mercury-202, which makes up 29.86% of the natural element. There are many radioactive isotopes. The longest-lived radioisotope is mercury-194, which has a half-life of 444 years.
Mercury is a very rare element in the earth’s crust. It makes up only 0.08 parts per million of the Earth’s crust. The main source of mercury is the mineral cinnabar. Cinnamon is mercury sulfide. To extract mercury from its ore, it is necessary to heat the mineral and collect the mercury vapors. This is also rare, sometimes mercury is found freely in nature. Mercury ores are usually found near hot springs or volcanic zones.
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Historically, mercury has been used in medicine. It was present in many medicines and disinfectants. Due to the toxicity of mercury, its use has decreased. However, this element is still present in some laxatives, eye drops, diuretics, nasal sprays, antiseptics and ointments.
Mercury is absorbed through inhalation, skin and mucous membranes, and through the mouth. Organic mercury compounds are the most toxic, but even pure metal can cause acute and chronic poisoning. Mercury damages the brain, lungs and kidneys. The first symptoms of poisoning are insomnia; nervousness; lack of coordination; vision, speech and hearing impairment; trembling; and cognitive impairment. Acute poisoning also causes coughing, chest pain, and inflammation of lung tissue. Mercury poisoning is treated with chelating agents. Pioneering Study of Exotic Nuclei New research and newly applied techniques are expanding scientific understanding of isotopes with nuclei that have a magic number of less than 82 protons and more than 126 neutrons.
Mercury-207 is in a largely unexplored region of the nuclear map, with one neutron outside the chain of isotopes whose shell is full of 126 neutrons.
The nuclei of atoms consist of protons and neutrons held together by a force called nuclear binding energy. Some isotopes with a certain number of protons and neutrons have more tightly bound nuclei than isotopes with more or fewer protons or neutrons. This means that the nuclei of these isotopes require more energy to decay into protons and neutrons. These specific numbers of neutrons or protons are 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, and 126. Scientists are particularly interested in nuclei with fewer than 82 protons and more than 126 neutrons. Isotopes that differ by one proton or neutron from these magic numbers provide insight into the structure of the nucleus. Scientists have gained new insight into the nucleus of mercury-207, an isotope that has two fewer protons than the magic number 82 and fewer neutrons than the magic number 126.
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Nuclei with numbers of protons and neutrons close to these magic numbers help scientists understand how elements higher on the periodic table appear in stellar events such as neutron star mergers. Many successive nuclear reactions take place in this stellar environment, producing progressively heavier unstable nuclei. The nuclear structure of these nuclei determines the speed of these reactions. In many cases, scientists do not have the necessary experimental data to accurately estimate the nuclear structure. The new research presented here helps limit those assumptions.
This new measurement was made possible by two technical advances. The first is the new availability of accelerated beams of radioactive mercury-206 nuclei. Another is the development of new detector technology for research with radioactive nuclei. A nuclear beam of mercury-206, which has a magic number of 126 neutrons, bombards a target of deuterium, a heavier version of hydrogen. A small number of reactions result in the addition of one neutron to mercury-206 to convert mercury-207 to an excited state. The new detector system allows to detect these specific events and in turn reveals the excited states of mercury-207 nuclei. These two technical innovations show great potential for further investigation of these exotic nuclei in future radioactive facilities, such as the Rare Isotope Beam Facility, and for expanding our understanding of nuclear fusion in stellar events.
This material relates to work supported by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Office of Nuclear Physics, the UK Technology Council, Horizon 2020, the EU’s flagship program for research and innovation, the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Fellowship Program and research. Within the framework of the Flanders Foundation major project and the European Research Council. The work was also supported by DOE through Los Alamos National Laboratory and its laboratory research and development programs. Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system. In fact, the Earth is not much bigger than the Moon. NASA
You like to think you know your neighbors, but sometimes they catch you off guard. This small world, called Mercury, is the first planet from our sun, which means it is one of the four terrestrial planets. Venus is second, Earth is third and dear old Mars is number 4. Common knowledge, right?
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Well, numbering hides some truths. With a tight little orbit around the Sun, Mercury can’t get as far from Earth as Venus and Mars. Thus, most of the time, Mercury is closer to the Earth than the other planets – regardless of its position in the planetary order. And that’s not the strangest thing about Mercury’s travel patterns.
Of all the planets in the solar system, Mercury’s period of rotation around the Sun is the fastest. It orbits the star at an average speed of 105,947 miles per hour (170,505 kilometers per hour). The name of the planet was also a real skater. In Roman mythology, Mercury was the god of commerce known for his winged sandals.
The Earth takes a little over 365 days to orbit the Sun. Mercury does the same at the same time. One Mercury year is fast equal to 87.97 Earth days. Vacationing there will be a disorienting experience: On Mercury, the years may be fast, but the days are long.
The rocky planet completes a new revolution around its axis every 58.65 Earth days. If you know the numbers, you may have noticed something strange. If we round 58.65 and 87.97 to the nearest whole number, we get 59 and 88.
General Information On Mercury
Here’s why these numbers matter. Imagine yourself as an astronaut camping on the surface of Mercury. While we’re at it, let’s just say you can catch an early sunrise during your stay. Make sure you have a camera handy. According to the European Space Agency, it takes 176 Earth days before the sun rises again.
See, if we define a “day” as the time it takes for our sun to return to a certain point in the sky, one day on Mercury is 176 Earth days. That’s about two full Mercury years!
Another thing to get used to: When looking at the sun from Mercury, the sun appears to freeze for part of its journey across the sky. It then moves back for a spell before changing direction to the opposite horizon.
In other words, the sun appears to rise and set briefly before rising again. How’s that for a unique sunset?
Mercury Atom Stock Illustration 498572032
Mercury (left) is the closest planet to the Sun in the Solar System. This artist’s concept (left) shows its estimated relative size to Earth’s Venus
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