What Characterizes Developing Economies Check All That Apply

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With the shift to traditional public and urban markets over the past 200 years, youth growth has been linked to the growth of highly competitive labor markets that require new types of capital (such as education) to succeed. Life history studies show that parents are moving to invest more in their children, so parents can invest in their children to help them succeed. At the same time, the growth of market capitalism is associated with the growth of important values ​​such as selfishness, materialism and the pursuit of status, which has intensified in the consumer economy in the last 40-50 years. Important values ​​are important: if young people show external behaviors that do not correspond to basic values, they are at risk for mental health problems and depression. This article argues that, with the development of the macro-culture of foreign values, young people in the development of capitalism (AC) are forced to create an identity that depends on the market and place it in the self-narrative of success, status, and continued pride. The importance of important values ​​in AC is aligned with the development of neuro-maturity and the gradual development of adolescence, including market-based conditions such as physical attractiveness, display of wealth and material success, and great success (education and bonus). The cultural transmission of market standards is aided by the evolutionary tendencies in the youth to learn from the elders, the successful, and the powerful (focusing on reputation) and copy their peers. The paper concludes with an integrated account of the social and environmental evolution of the youth market, while highlighting the challenges that arise in integrating cultural and individual development.

What Characterizes Developing Economies Check All That Apply

The problem of identity in youth can be more serious and serious today than at any time in history (Deci & Ryan, 2012). On the other hand, young people in advanced capitalist societies seem to have unprecedented opportunities to aspire and realize different perspectives that increasingly free them from traditional systems and restrictions (eg parental roles, family rules and expectations, religious ideals). On the other hand, in advanced capitalism (AC), the decline of formal structures complicates the formation of identity and makes the transition to a career dimension more stressful (Sawyer et al., 2012; Coté, 2016). For example, young people face the challenge of securing higher education and access to an uncertain labor market, while at the same time creating an identity that allows them to thrive in a self-reliant capitalist culture.

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Although young people in today’s capitalist culture may be less influenced by preexisting cultural norms and beliefs as they develop their identity (Deci and Ryan, 2012; Coté, 2016), they are still exposed to social influences and pressures while growing up (Curran and Hill, 2019). The current article shows that in AC societies, the influence of macro culture in the form of important values ​​that promote physical desire, wealth and material success, high achievement, social status, and self-image have a significant impact on the development of youth behavior. With the development of the culture of good values, young people are increasingly forced to develop the identity of the market and put in the self-narrative of success, status, and improve self-esteem (Butler, 2018).

Building a market-based identity provides a unique perspective on youth socialization and the imbalanced focus on external values ​​that have been fostered by culture in AC. Researchers in fields such as social capital (Kasser, 2002), youth adjustment to higher education (HAS; Luthar & Kumar, 2018), and decision theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2012; Ryan et al., 2016) have focused on youth externalities and health issues. Adolescents create problems in balancing external and internal values ​​in their manifestation of their common limitations: If they show inconsistency to internal values, personal adjustment and mental health increase (Casser, 2002; Lutran and Hill, 2019; Van Den Broek and others, 2019). Therefore, it is necessary to promote a positive environment that will allow young people to develop a balance between intrinsic and extrinsic values, while responding to the impact of AC business on their formation.

This article further developed the hypothesis that young people in AC cultures increasingly need to develop a real market base. First, the definition of capitalism and identity is presented. Second, evolutionary studies are discussed to help identify key population-based dimensions of market-based societies and how they contribute to youth development. Employing an evolutionary analysis, the next section outlines the parallels between the construction of a market base in youth and historical sources from the sociological literature. After establishing the evolutionary and historical basis of market-based formation in youth, the collected data are reviewed and established status-seeking values ​​and values ​​such as selfishness, materialism, and interpersonal competition as central to the development of AC and market-based. These aspects include the analysis of how the development of cultural values ​​is represented by status- and market identity-enhancing principles such as physical beauty, high achievement, and material success. Then, combining evolutionary and social perspectives (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), the article shows that young people return to these market principles in a professional environment that supports neuro-maturation and slow development during adolescence. That is, these developmental changes strengthen the relationship between youth development and market-based principles that reflect youth’s peer values ​​and peer contexts that are biologically responsive to and achieve status. The paper concludes with an integrated evolutionary model of market-based youth socialization, while addressing the challenges of developing models that link cultural and individual-level factors in youth development.

Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their activities for profit (Zimbalist and Sherman, 2014). The AC capitalist model describes societies that have developed deeply over a long period of time. According to the sociological development of young people, capitalism is an economic and social system that has a broad and important influence on how social relations and experiences are structured (Deci and Ryan, 2012; Streeck, 2016). Therefore, it is hypothesized that the type of economic and social group defined as AC can have psychological effects to improve the behavior of children and young people with deep social conditions (Brummelman and Thomaes, 2017). The studies reviewed here are mostly from Western countries and include studies from liberal market economies (LMEs; e.g. Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United Kingdom) and more balanced market economies (CMEs; e.g. Germany, Sweden, Denmark), with the main difference being that the models of Hall and Soskitskie and Soskitski (Soskitsall and Soskice) are included. A feature of all types of economics is that they solve the problems of “integration” (between the company and its financiers, employees, suppliers and customers) in different ways. In LMEs, coordination is primarily through market mechanisms, while in CMEs, formal institutions play an important role in managing the economy and coordinating strong relationships with stakeholders. For example, wages in LMEs are determined by market forces, while in CMEs they are determined by industry-level collective bargaining between labor unions and unions (Heery and Noon, 2008).

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This article attempts to integrate research from psychology and anthropology, neuroscience, and the social sciences of adolescent behavior development and well-being. The accepted theoretical framework, described by Heine (2010), states that mental processes arise from evolutionary factors that are compatible with specific cultural meaning systems that are associated with AC and thus shape youth development. This approach does not reduce AC to a social or cultural construct or the manifestation of evolutionary causes. Rather, it views AC as a sustainable social and economic system that emphasizes the limited human potential in which culture and civilization intersect (Heft, 2013).

The definition of adolescent identity is adapted from SDT, where identity is viewed as the development of self-representation through which the adolescent understands and defines what and who he is (Ryan et al., 2016). People like boys, they provide a subjective lens and focus on other but not other characteristics of themselves and their environment (Oyserman, 2007). Adhering to positive values, young people tend to use a special opinion to impress others by accumulating external signs of esteem (Williams et al., 2000). For example, young people’s self-presentation of valuable consumer goods or the use of impression management to enhance choice, online image enhancement, money, good behavior, high success, and fame are examples of traditional culture’s emphasis on good values ​​that express and affirm the self (Kasser et al., 2007).

Youth identity development requires environmental opportunities, support, and feedback (Deci & Ryan, 2012). The sociocultural environments that support the development of market-based orientation among young people are often characterized by seeking information and developing social relationships with a focus on external orientation.

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