What Differentiates Extension From Hyperextension – Synovial joints allow the body to move excessively. Every movement in a synovial joint is due to the contraction or relaxation of the muscles attached to the bones on either side of the joint. The type of movement that can occur in a synovial joint is determined by its structural type. Although ball-and-socket joints provide the most motion in individual joints, several joints can work together to produce a specific motion in other areas of the body. In general, each type of synovial joint is necessary to provide extreme flexibility and mobility to the body. Synovial joints can have a wide range of motion (Table 1). Movement patterns are often paired, opposite each other. Physical activities are always explained by the physical position of the body: standing straight, upper arms on one side of the body and hands forward.
Watch this video to learn about physical activities. Which activities involve increasing or decreasing the angle of the foot at the heel?
What Differentiates Extension From Hyperextension
Flexion and extension are movements that occur in the sagittal plane and involve forward or backward movement of the body or limbs. For the spine, flexion (anterior flexion) is the anterior (forward) bending of the neck or torso, while extension involves the posterior direction, such as bending back from a straight or flexed position. Lateral flexion is bending of the neck or body to the right or left. These movements of the vertebral column involve the symphysis joint formed by each vertebral disc, as well as the smooth surface of the synovial joint formed between the inferior articular process of one vertebra and the superior articular process of the next vertebra.
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In the limbs, flexion decreases the angle between the bones (joint flexion), extension increases the angle, and the joint straightens. For the upper limbs, all forward movements are flexion and all posterior movements are extension. These include back-and-forth movements of the shoulder, wrist at the elbow, hand at the wrist, and fingers at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. Finger extension moves the thumb from the base of the hand perpendicular to the palm, while flexion brings the finger back toward the index finger or palm. These movements occur at the first carpometacarpal joint. In the lower limb, flexion of the hip and any posterior extension of the thigh are performed, bringing the thigh forward and up. Note that extension of the thigh beyond the physiological (standing) position is severely restricted by the ligaments supporting the hip joint. Flexion of the knee is to bend the knee to bring the foot into the rear thigh, and extension is to straighten the knee. Movements of flexion and extension are seen in the tendons, condyloids, saddles, and balls and sockets of the feet (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. Flexibility and extensibility. (A)-(B) Range of flexion and extension in the sagittal (anterior-posterior) plane of motion. These movements occur at the shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. (c) – (d) The front of the head or spine is bent to bend, while any motion is lengthening.
Hyperextension is the abnormal or excessive stretching of a joint beyond its normal range of motion, leading to injury. Similarly, there is excessive flexibility in a hyperflexion joint. Hyperextension injuries are more common in hip joints such as the knee or elbow. In a “whiplash” condition, in which the head is suddenly moved backward and then forward, the patient may experience cervical hyperextension and hyperflexion.
Abduction and abduction are movements of the limbs, hands, fingers, or feet in the coronal (medio-lateral) plane of motion. To move an arm or leg from the side of the body or to spread the fingers or toes is a steal. A joint connects a limb or hand to the midline of the body or toes or fingers. Rotation is the movement of the arm, hand, or fingers in a circular pattern using a continuous combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction movements.
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Abduction and adduction movements occur in the coronal plane and involve mediolateral movements of the arms, fingers, toes, or toes. Abduction moves the limb slightly away from the midline of the body, whereas abduction is the opposite movement that brings the limb towards the body or midline. For example, abduction raises the arm at the wrist and moves it slightly away from the body, while abduction brings the arm to one side of the body. Similarly, abduction and adduction of the wrist moves the arm toward the midline or midsection of the body. Spreading the toes or feet together is also a habit of pulling the toes or feet together. Finger abduction is a forward motion that brings the thumb into a 90° vertical position and points out from the straight arm. The joint moves the finger into an anatomical position next to the index finger. Abduction and adduction movements are seen in the condyloid, saddle, and ball and socket joints (see Figure 2).
Rotation is the motion of a body field in a circular pattern, where one end of the moving body field is relatively stationary while the other end describes a circle. This joint involves a constant combination of flexion, adduction, extension, and abduction. This type of motion occurs in biaxial condyloid and saddle joints and in multi-ball-and-socket joints (see Figure 2).
Rotation can occur within the vertebral column, at a socket joint, or at a ball-and-socket joint. Rotation of the neck or body is a twisting motion resulting from the accumulation of small rotational motions between adjacent vertebrae. In the hip joint, one bone moves with another bone. It is a bilateral joint, so rotation is the only motion at the joint. For example, in the atlantoaxial joint, the first vertebra (C1) rotates around the vertebral dens (atlas), while the second vertebra (C2) projects superior to the vertebra (arrow). This allows the head to rotate from side to side as if shaking it “no”. The proximal radioulnar joint is the joint formed by the head of the radius with the ulna. This joint allows the hip to rotate along the length of the radius during pronation and abduction movements.
Circulation can also occur in the hip and hip socket. Here, the humerus and femur rotate in a longitudinal axis that moves the anterior surface of the arm or thigh towards the midline or length of the body. The movement that brings the outer surface of the limb to the midline of the body is called medial (internal) rotation. In contrast, lateral (external) rotation occurs such that the front of the limb moves away from the midline (see Figure 3). Distinguish between medial and lateral rotation, which can occur only in the multijoint shoulder and hip joints, and rotation, which can occur in two or more joints.
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Turning the head to one side or turning the body is a rotation. Medial and lateral rotation of the upper limb at the shoulder or lower leg involves turning the anterior surface of the limb toward the midline of the body (median or internal rotation) or away from the midline (lateral or external rotation).
Supination and pronation are movements of the wrist. Anatomically, the upper arm is placed next to the body, palm facing forward. This is the topmost position of the wrist. In this case the radius and ulna are parallel to each other. When the forearm is pulled back, the wrist is flexed and the radius and ulna form an X shape.
Supination and pronation are movements of the wrist that move between these two positions. Pronation is the motion that moves the wrist from the supine (anatomical) position to the pronated (palm back) position. This motion results from rotation of the radius at the proximal radioulnar joint and movement of the radius at the distal radioulnar joint. The proximal radioulnar joint is the main joint that allows the head of the radius to rotate. Because of the slight curvature of the radial shaft, this rotation causes the distal tip of the radius to pass over the distal ulna at the distal radioulnar joint. This transition brings the radius and ulna into an X-shaped position. Supination is an opposite motion in which rotation of the radius brings the bones into a parallel position and moves the palm to an anterior (upward) position. It helps to remember that supination is the motion you are using when you exhale (see Figure 4).
Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are joint movements at the wrist. Dorsiflexion by raising the front of the foot and moving the top of the foot toward the front foot, while lifting the heel off the ground or turning the soles of the foot down. it’s just verbs
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