What Industry Was Most Affected By The Refrigerated Railcar – In the railroad industry, a rail car (or “refrigerator”) is a refrigerated vehicle designed to transport perishable goods at a certain temperature. Refrigerated wagons differ from insulated wagons and ventilated wagons (often used for transporting fruit) in that neither is equipped with refrigeration.
The referees were first cooled with ice; they are now equipped with any of a variety of mechanical refrigeration systems or use carbon dioxide (either dry ice or liquid) as the cooling agent. Milk trucks (and other types of “express” refrigerators) may or may not have a cooling system. However, they are equipped with modifications so that they can travel with passenger trains.
What Industry Was Most Affected By The Refrigerated Railcar
After the Civil War, Chicago became a major railroad station that shipped cattle from the Great Plains to markets in the eastern United States. To transport the animals to the slaughterhouses in Chicago, the herds had to be driven 1,200 miles to railroad stations in Kansas City, Missouri. or other Midwestern locations such as Abilene and Dodge City, Kansas. In these cities, cattle were loaded onto specialized railroad cars and transported alive (“on the hoof”) to processing centers in Chicago.
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The cattle drive caused great weight loss, and some of the weaker animals died along the trail. There were also costly inefficiencies in rail transport (about 60% of the animal’s weight was inedible). Transit deaths of some animals also increased the transportation costs per unit.
Once in Chicago, wholesalers slaughtered cattle. Fresh meat was delivered to nearby butchers for retail sale; most were smoked or salted for shipment to the eastern US. These two methods changed the flavor of the meat, but allowed it to be transported over great distances. However, meat processors were looking for a better way to ship processed meat from Chicago packing plants to “back east” markets.
The Massachusetts Western Railroad has announced that it is experimenting with different railcar designs that can carry a variety of perishable goods without damage.
In June 1851, the first refrigerated car was put into service on the New York Northern Railroad. This “refrigerator on wheels” only worked in cold weather, so its use was limited. Also in 1851, the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain Railroad (O&LC) began transporting oil to Boston in specially designed boxcars, using ice to cool it.
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The term “processed beef” refers to the process by which cattle are partially slaughtered. The internal organs are removed, often “the head, as well as the inedible (or less desirable) parts of the tail and legs.” Processed beef includes the remaining “bones, gristle, and other body structures still attached after this initial slaughter.” The average weight of beef cattle is 59% of the initial weight of the cattle. In 1857, the first shipment of beef was shipped east from a Chicago warehouse in wagons containing buckets filled with ice. However, placing the meat directly on the ice caused discoloration and affected the flavor, so this was not a feasible solution.
Around the same time, Gustavus Swift (founder of Swift and Company) experimented by shipping processed meat to New York in 10 boxcars with doors removed. However, this turned out to be practically impossible.
This effort was followed by a “refrigerated wagon that used metal brackets to suspend the carcasses over a frozen mixture of ice and salt.” William Davis patented this wagon in 1868 and sold the design to Detroit meat packer George H. Hammond. Hammond had a series of railroad cars designed by Davis to transport his produce to Boston using ice from the Great Lakes for refrigeration. However, this also failed; When a train enters a curve at high speed, the loads are deflected to one side. After several derailments, the train was decommissioned.
In 1878, Swift hired engineer Andrew Chase “to design a ventilation machine, well insulated and placing ice in a compartment at the top of the car, allowing the cooled air to flow naturally downwards.” To avoid the balance problems Hammond encountered, the meat was “packed tightly in the bottom of the machine to keep the center of gravity low and prevent the load from shifting.” Chase’s design was a practical solution to allow processed meat to be shipped in temperature-controlled railcars. Swift and Company was the first meat processor to ship its products throughout the United States (and later internationally).
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However, once the new coaches were ready for use, most of the railways did not allow them to be added to the trains. Swift doesn’t hold back; Contracted with the Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) to deliver wagons to Michigan and then east through Canada. (The GTR made very little profit from hauling live stock, so its management was “unafraid” to haul its refrigerators.) Other railroads, such as the Erie, Lackawanna, New York Central, and Pennsylvania Railroads, also hauled Swift cars to population centers in the Northeast.
Swift tried to sell Chase’s design to a number of major railroads. However, the railroads invested heavily in cars, stables, and feedlots; if refrigerated meat transport were widely used, this investment would be worthless. That’s why Swift took over the initial production of refrigerators. Peninsular Car Company supplied cars to Swift, who then formed Swift Refrigerator Line (SRL).
Within a year, SRL had about 200 refrigeration units, and Swift was shipping an average of 3,000 beef per week to Boston. Competitors such as Armor and Company, witnessing the Swift’s success, built their own wagons. SRL fleet increased; By 1920, he owned and operated 7,000 ice-cooled railcars. In 1930, SRL was sold to General American Transportation Corporation.
The use of ice to cool and preserve food dates back to ancient times. For centuries, “seasonal harvesting of snow and ice has been a regular practice of many cultures.” The Chinese, Greeks, and Romans stored ice and snow in “caves, dugouts, or rinks lined with straw or other insulating materials.” Ice rationing allowed food to be preserved in the warmer months, a practice that had been used successfully for centuries.
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In the late 1800s, natural ice (harvested from ponds, rivers, and lakes) was used to equip new cold storage facilities. In frozen areas during the winter, 1-foot-by-1-foot containers were filled with water and allowed to freeze into blocks of ice. The “harvested” ice is usually broken into blocks during the winter and then stored in isolated warehouses. Sawdust and/or grass is wrapped around the ice blocks to provide additional insulation.
Blocks of ice (also known as “cakes”) were manually loaded from the closed freezer into the refrigeration machines. Each block weighed between 200 and 400 pounds. Crushed ice was more expensive and was usually used in meat cars.
At that time, the process of using refrigerators was very complicated. Depending on the cargo and its destination, wagons may (or may not) be fumigated. The wagons were given to the shipper for loading, each wagon was covered with ice. A train carrying refrigerators headed for markets in the East. During transport, the vehicles were frozen approximately once a day (sometimes more often depending on the outside temperature). When the wagons reached their destination, the wagons were unloaded. If there was a special demand for wagons, they would be returned empty (dead) to the place of origin. Otherwise, the wagons would be cleaned and dry cargo shipped.
The earliest refrigerators were made of wood; As mentioned above, they require new ice every 250-400 miles depending on the outside temperature. “High icing” was the practice of placing a 2- to 4-inch layer of crushed ice on agricultural products that “have a high respiration rate, require high relative humidity, and benefit from a refrigerant that sits directly on top of (or inside) the load.” “private boxes).” Carloads of pre-chilled fresh produce are frozen before leaving the point of departure. When using the top ice method, considerable dead weight was added to the carload weight (over 10,000 pounds of ice was required to freeze the top ice of a 40-foot cooler).
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It was believed that when the top of the ice melted, “cooled water would flow through the cargo to continue the cooling process.” However, manufacturers and railroad workers have learned that icing favors only the top few layers of cargo and that meltwater typically passes through the gaps between cartons, crates, and/or pallets without providing a cooling effect. Top icing prevents the temperature in the cars from rising; it did not cool the load, so this experiment was eventually discontinued.
In the 1870s, there was no practical way to cool and transport peaches. As mentioned above, this limited the markets for these (and other) fruits. However, in 1875, Georgia peach grower Samuel Rumph invented the refrigeration machine and special boxes.
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