What Is 100 000 Yen In Us Dollars – [1/4] Japan’s 1,000 yen note and China’s 100 yuan note are seen in an illustration in Beijing, China, January 21, 2016. /Jason Li
NEW YORK, April 22 (Xinhua) — The U.S. dollar surged to a more than two-year high on Friday, continuing to be underpinned by comments from Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell on Thursday that appeared to favor a half-percentage point of tightening at next month’s policy meeting, as well as his comments that he expects successive rate hikes this year.
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The U.S. dollar index , which measures the greenback’s value against six major currencies, touched 101.33, its highest level since March 2020. The index was last up 0.6% at 101.16, its biggest one-day percentage gain since mid-March. So far this year, the dollar index has risen 5.7%.
U.s. Dollar Hits More Than 2 Year High On Aggressive Fed Hike Outlook
“Macro fundamentals still point to a bullish dollar outlook as short-term Treasury yields are similarly positive relative to sovereign yields and global inflation is high,” said Stan Shipley, fixed income strategist at Evercore ISI in New York.
“These macro engines are working fine until the dollar reaches a level where economic growth is severely damaged and the credibility of US government debt is in doubt,” he added.
Powell said on Thursday that the Fed “will consider raising rates by half a percentage point” when it meets on May 3-4. read more
After similar gains in May and June, fed funds futures started their third 50 basis point gain in July and add nearly 250 basis points in 2022.
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“Even with a 50-basis-point hike from the Fed, rates are still at the lower end or below neutral,” said Calvin Tessa, head of developed Americas strategy (FX, rates, equities) at BNP Paribas in New York.
“They probably don’t feel it’s overly tightening because even after a rate hike, policy is still accommodative, it’s still appropriate.”
Across the Atlantic, the euro fell 0.4% to $1.0792 after European Central Bank officials sent mixed policy signals.
ECB President Christine Lagarde struck a dovish tone on Thursday, saying the central bank may have to lower its growth forecasts, a day after ECB dovish Luis de Guindos joined some policymakers in calling for an early end to the bank’s asset purchases and a July rate hike. read more
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Investors were also awaiting Sunday’s runoff between incumbent French President Emmanuel Macron and far-right contender Marine Le Pen, with the latest polls showing Macron winning with 55 percent of the vote.
Sterling fell to its weakest level against the dollar since November 2020 after sales data and recent comments from the Bank of England added more to the expected slowdown in the path of rate hikes.
Sterling fell 1.5% to A$1.2832 after hitting $1.2830, its weakest level since October 2020.
The dollar was up 0.2 percent against the yen at 128.55 yen. On Wednesday, the yen remained near its weakest level since April 2002, at 129.43 yen per dollar.
A Thousand Yen Japanese Bank Note With An American One Hundred Dollar Bill Stock Photo
The yen has lost more than 10% of its value against the resurgent dollar since the start of the year. A weaker yen has pushed up the prices of imports such as commodities that are still priced in dollars.
Japan’s TBS broadcaster reported on Friday that Japan and the United States had apparently discussed the idea of coordinated currency intervention in a bilateral meeting of finance ministers to prevent the yen from falling further.
Japanese Finance Minister Shunichi Suzuki described the yen’s recent fall as “sharp” and said he agreed to communicate closely with U.S. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen on currency movements. Learn more Over the past 30 years, there have been wild swings between the Japanese Yen and its exchange rate against other currencies. In the early 1980s, the yen-dollar exchange rate was usually between 200 and 270 dollars. But in September 1985, the world’s largest Western economies gathered in New York and decided to lower the value of the dollar in an agreement that became known as the Plaza Accord. The Plaza Accord caused the yen to strengthen over the next decade, eventually approaching 80 yen/dollar. The yen appreciated by as much as 184%, which is astounding.
While a stronger yen is good for tourists and Japanese companies making acquisitions in the U.S., it is bad for Japanese exporters who want to sell to U.S. consumers. In fact, the sharp appreciation of the yen was one of the key factors that led to the establishment and bursting of Japan’s bubble economy in the late 1980s, followed by more than two decades of economic stagnation and price deflation.
Using And Exchanging Money In Japan
Since 1995, the yen has experienced many violent fluctuations. Although their scope was less extensive than in the first decade after the Plaza Accord, they wreaked havoc on the thinking of Japanese businessmen and politicians and changed the fundamental structure of the country’s economy. The Yen started a new bout of strength in mid-2007 and broke through the 80 JPY/USD level in late 2011. This trend started to reverse (and sharply) with the election of a new government (led by Mr Abe) and the appointment of a new central bank governor (Mr). So what is the main impact of the exchange rate on the Japanese economy? What changes did this volatility bring about?
To determine the effect of exchange rates on the Japanese economy, a basic example can be used. Assuming an exchange rate of 120 JPY/USD, two Japanese automakers sell cars in the United States. Company A produces cars in Japan and then exports them to the United States. Company B has a factory in the United States, so the cars it sells in the United States are also produced in the United States. Now let us further assume that the cost of company A to produce an ordinary car in Japan is 1.2 million yen (estimated based on the exchange rate of 120 yen/dollar, which is about 10,000 US dollars), and the cost of company B to produce a similar model in the United States is 10,000 US dollars. After that, each car costs about the same. Since the two cars are of a similar make and quality, we end up assuming that both will sell for $15,000. This means that the two companies will earn $5,000 for the purchase of a car, which will turn into 600,000 yen when the vehicle is returned to Japan.
Now, let’s see what happens when the yen appreciates to 100 JPY/USD. Since it still costs Company A 1.2 million yen to manufacture a car in Japan, and because the yen has appreciated, the car is now worth $12,000 in dollars (1.2 million yen divided by 100 yen/dollar). But Company B still makes $10,000 per car because it produces it locally, independent of the exchange rate. If the cars still sell for $15,000, Company A now makes a profit of $3,000 per car ($15,000 – $12,000), which is equivalent to 300,000 yen at 100 JPY/USD. But Company B will still earn $5,000 ($15,000 – $10,000) per car, which equates to 500,000 yen. In yen terms, both companies would be less profitable, but Company A’s decline would be much worse. Of course, the opposite is true when the exchange rate trend reverses.
For example, if the yen depreciates to 140 yen/dollar, company A will earn 900,000 yen per car, while company B will only earn 700,000 yen per car. In yen terms, both would be better, but Company A would be more.
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These scenarios show the significant impact of exchange rates on Company A. Because Company A’s currency production does not match the currency it sells in, earnings in both currencies suffer. But Company B faces switching effects only because its dollar-denominated profitability is unaffected—a difference that is only noticed when it reports profits between Japan or attempts to repatriate cash back to Japan.
In the 10 years after the Plaza Accord, the sharp appreciation of the yen and the ensuing exchange rate fluctuations forced many Japanese manufacturers to rethink the export model of producing in Japan and selling abroad, which affected profitability. Japan quickly went from being a low-cost producer to one with relatively expensive labor. Even without the effects of the aforementioned effects, it becomes cheaper to produce goods overseas.
In addition, exporting products to the United States, where there is domestic competition, also faces political challenges. Americans have watched Sony, Panasonic, Sharp, etc. gobble up their TV manufacturing, and are unwilling to let the same happen to other strategic industries such as automobiles. As a result, a period of political tension surrounding trade emerged, creating new barriers to Japanese exports, such as voluntary quotas on cars and restrictions on exports to the United States.
Japanese companies now have two good reasons to build factories overseas. This will lead to more stable profitability amid volatile exchange rates and ease rising labor costs. Toyota is a typical example.
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The slide below is from Toyota’s FY2019 Annual Report
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