What Is The Charge For Phosphate

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What Is The Charge For Phosphate

Phosphorus (P), a nonmetallic chemical element of the nitrogen group (group 15 [Va] of the periodic table) that is a colorless, semitransparent, soft, waxy solid that glows in the dark at room temperature.

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Arab alchemists of the 12th century may have isolated elemental phosphorus by accident, but records are unclear. Phosphorus appears to have been discovered in 1669 by Hennig Brand, a German merchant whose hobby was alchemy. The brand let 50 buckets of urine sit until they rotted and “spawned maggots.” He then boiled urine into a paste and heated it with sand, distilling elemental phosphorus from the mixture. Brand reported his discovery in a letter to Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, and the subsequent demonstrations of this element and its ability to glow in the dark, or “phosphorescent”, aroused public interest. However, phosphorus remained a chemical curiosity until about a century ago, when it was discovered to be a component of bones. Digestion of bones with nitric or sulfuric acid produced phosphoric acid, from which phosphorus could be distilled by heating with charcoal. In the late 19th century, James Burgess Readman of Edinburgh developed a method of making the element from phosphate rock in an electric furnace, which is essentially the method used today.

Phosphorus is a very widespread element, the 12th most abundant in the earth’s crust, contributing about 0.10% by mass. Its cosmic abundance is about one atom for every 100 atoms of silicon, which is the norm. Its high chemical reactivity ensures that it does not occur in the free state (except in a few meteorites). Phosphorus always comes in the form of the phosphate ion. The main combined forms in nature are phosphate salts. Phosphorus contains about 550 different minerals, but of these, the main source of phosphorus is the apatite series, in which there are calcium ions with phosphate ions and varying amounts of fluoride, chloride, or hydroxide ions depending on the formula [California

]. Other important phosphorus-bearing minerals are wavellite and vivianite. Typically, metal atoms such as magnesium, manganese, strontium, and lead replace calcium in minerals, and silicate, sulfate, vanadate, and similar anions replace phosphate ions. Very large sedimentary deposits of fluoroapatite are found in many regions of the Earth. The phosphate in bone and tooth enamel is hydroxyapatite. (The principle of reducing dental caries by fluoridation depends on the conversion of hydroxyapatite to harder fluoroapatite, more resistant to caries.)

The main commercial source is phosphorite or phosphate rock, a massive impure form of carbonate apatite. Estimates of total phosphate in the Earth’s crust average about 65,000,000,000 tons, of which Morocco and Western Sahara contain about 80%. This estimate includes only ore rich enough in phosphate to be converted into useful products by current methods. There are also vast quantities of low phosphorus materials.

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The only natural isotope of phosphorus is the isotope with mass 31. Other isotopes with mass 24 to 46 have been synthesized by suitable nuclear reactions. All are radioactive with relatively short half-lives. The mass-32 isotope has a half-life of 14.268 days and has proven extremely useful in tracer studies involving phosphorus uptake and movement in living organisms.

The main technique for converting phosphate rock into usable materials is to acidify the crushed rock – with sulfuric or phosphoric acid – to produce raw calcium hydrogen phosphates, which are soluble in water and are valuable fertilizer additives. Most of the production is burned in phosphoric anhydride and then treated with water to produce phosphoric acid, H

. About 95% of the phosphate rock mined in the United States is used to make fertilizers or animal feed supplements. However, there have been concerns about the use of phosphorus. Most phosphorus is wasted on its way from mining to human consumption, and unnecessary phosphorus ends up in waterways where it can cause algal blooms. Another concern is that increased phosphorus use will deplete non-renewable phosphate reserves.

Only about 5% of the phosphorus consumed each year in the United States is used in elemental form. Pyrotechnic applications of this element include tracers, incendiaries, fireworks and matches. Some are used as an alloying agent, some are used to kill rodents, and the rest are used in chemical synthesis. A large amount is converted into sulphides used in matches and in the manufacture of insecticides and oil additives. Most of the residue is converted to halides or oxides for further use in the synthesis of organic phosphorus compounds. This article is about the orthophosphate ion. For organophosphate derivatives, see Organophosphate. For other phosphates, see phosphoric acids and phosphates.

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In chemistry, phosphate is an anion, salt, functional group, or ester derived from phosphoric acid. This most often means orthophosphate, a derivative of orthophosphoric acid, aka. phosphoric acid H3PO4.

The phosphate or orthophosphate ion [PO 4 ] 3− is derived from phosphoric acid by the elimination of three H+ protons. By removing one proton, the dihydrophosphate ion [H2PO4]− is obtained, by removing two ions, the hydrophosphate ion [HPO4]2− is obtained. These names are also used for salts of these anions, such as ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and sodium phosphate.

In organic chemistry, a phosphate or orthophosphate is an organophosphate, an ester of orthophosphoric acid in the form PO 4 RR′R″ where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups. An example is trimethyl phosphate, (CH3)3PO4. The term also refers to the trivalent OP(0-)3 functionality in such esters. Phosphates can contain sulfur instead of one or more oxygen atoms (thiophosphates and organothiophosphates).

Orthophosphates are particularly important among the various phosphates because of their key roles in biochemistry, biogeochemistry and ecology and their economic importance to agriculture and industry.

Transcription Translation And Replication Notes: Diagrams & Illustrations

The phosphate ion has a molar mass of 94.97 g/mol and consists of a central phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. It is the conjugate base of the hydrophosphate ion H(PO 4 )2−, which in turn is the conjugate base of the dihydrophosphate ion H 2 (PO 4 )−, which in turn is the conjugate base orthophosphoric acid, H 3 PO 4 .

Many phosphates are soluble in water at normal temperature and pressure. Sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and ammonium phosphates are soluble in water. Most other phosphates are only slightly soluble or insoluble in water. In general, hydrophosphates and dihydrophosphates are slightly more soluble than the corresponding phosphates.

In an aqueous solution, orthophosphoric acid and its three derived anions coexist according to the dissociation and recombination equilibrium below

Values ​​are pH values ​​where the concentration of each species equals the concentration of its conjugate bases. At pH 1 or less, phosphoric acid is essentially undissociated. Around pH 4.7 (halfway between the first two pK

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Values) the dihydrogen phosphate ion [H 2 PO 4 ]− is practically the only species present. Around pH 9.8 (halfway between the second and third pK

Values) the monohydrogen phosphate ion, [HPO 4 ]2−, is the only ring species. At pH 13 or higher, the acid is completely dissociated as the phosphate ion (PO 4 )3-.

This means that salts of mono- and di-phosphate ions can be selectively crystallized from aqueous solution by adjusting the pH to 4.7 or 9.8.

In fact, H 3 PO 4, H 2 (PO 4 )− and H(PO 4 ) 2− behave as separate weak acids because the successive pK

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Phosphate can form many polymeric ions such as pyrophosphate, (P207)4- and triphosphate, (P3010)5-. The various metaphosphate ions (which are generally long linear polymers) have the empirical formula (PO3)- and are found in many compounds.

In biological systems, phosphorus can be found as free phosphate anions in solution (inorganic phosphate) or bound to organic molecules as various organophosphates.

Inorganic phosphate is generally equipped with Pi and at physiological (homeostatic) pH consists mainly of a mixture of [HPO 4 ]2- and [H 2 PO 4 ]- ions. At neutral pH, as in the cytosol (pH = 7.0), the concentrations of orthophosphoric acid and its three anions have the ratios

Therefore, only [H2PO4]− and [HP04]2− ions are present in significant amounts in the cytosol (62% [H2PO4]−, 38% [HP04]2−). In the extracellular fluid (pH = 7.4), this proportion is reversed (61% [HPO 4 ]2−, 39% [H 2 PO 4 ]− ).

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Inorganic phosphate can also be composed of pyrophosphate anions [P 2 O 7 ]4− , which

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