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What Is The Symbol For Element With Atomic Number 74
Nickel (Ni), a chemical element, a ferromagnetic metal belonging to group 10 (VIIIb) of the periodic table, has an obvious resistance to oxidation and corrosion.
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Silvery-white, harder and harder than iron, nickel is widely used because it is used in coinage, but more importantly in pure metal form or in alloy form for many domestic and industrial applications. Elemental nickel occurs very rarely with iron in terrestrial and meteorite deposits. The metal was isolated (1751) by the Swedish chemist and mineralogist, Baron Axel Fredrik Kronsted, who prepared an impure sample from an ore containing nicolite (nickel arsenide). Before that, it was called ore of the same type
After “Old Nick” and his mischievous dwarves because, although it resembles copper ore, it produces a strange, brittle metal. Twice as much as copper, nickel makes up about 0.007% of the Earth’s crust; it is a fairly common component of igneous rocks, although only a few sediments qualify for commercial concentration, size, and availability. The central regions of the Earth are thought to contain significant amounts. The most important sources are pentlandite, found with nickel-bearing pyrrhotite, where some types contain 3 to 5 percent nickel, and chalcopyrite, and nickel-bearing laterite, such as garnierite, a magnesium-nickel silicate. The composition varies.
The nickel smelting process is complex in its details, many of which vary widely, depending on the specific ore being processed. Generally, the ore is converted to dinickel trisulfide, Ni
(with nickel in the +3 oxidation state), is heated in air to give nickel oxide, NiO (+2 state), and then reduced with carbon to give the metal. Some high purity nickel is made using the previously mentioned carbonyl process. (For information on nickel mining, processing and production, see
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Nickel (atomic number 28) is similar to iron (atomic number 26) in strength and toughness, but more closely resembles copper (atomic number 29) in resistance to oxidation and corrosion, a combination that has many applications. Nickel has high electrical and thermal conductivity. More than half of the nickel produced is used in alloys with iron (especially stainless steel), and most of the rest is used in corrosion-resistant alloys with copper (including Monel, which contains about 60 to 70 percent nickel, 30 to 40 percent). copper and small amounts of other metals such as iron) and in heat-resistant alloys with chromium. Nickel is also used in resistive, magnetic, and many other alloys, such as nickel silver (with copper and zinc, but no silver). Non-alloyed metals are used to form protective coatings on other metals, especially by electroplating. Finely divided nickel is used to catalyze the hydrogenation of unsaturated organic compounds (eg fats and oils).
Nickel can be easily produced using standard hot and cold working methods. Nickel reacts only slowly with fluorine, eventually forming a protective coating of fluoride, and is therefore used as a pure metal or in the form of an alloy such as Monel in equipment dealing with corrosive fluorine and fluoride gases. Nickel is ferromagnetic at room temperature, although not as strong as iron and less charged than iron, it dissolves easily in dilute inorganic acids.
Natural nickel consists of five stable isotopes: nickel-58 (68.27%), nickel-60 (26.10%), nickel-61 (1.13%), nickel-62 (3.59%) and nickel -64 (0.91%). It has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Nickel is ferromagnetic up to 358 °C, or 676 °F (its Curie point). This metal is resistant to alkali and is often used for containers containing concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions. Nickel reacts slowly with strong acids under normal conditions, releasing hydrogen and forming Ni.
Of its compounds, nickel exhibits oxidation states of -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, and +4, although the +2 state is by far the most common. Nor
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Form a large number of complexes, including coordination numbers 4, 5, and 6, and all major types of structures — for example, octahedral, trigonal biconic, tetrahedral, and square.
Compounds with nickel in the +2 state have many industrial applications. For example, nickel chloride, NiCl
, is also used in nickel plating as well as in the preparation of catalysts, base enamels and mordants (fixers) for dyeing and printing fabrics. Nickel oxide, NiO and nickel peroxide, Ni
, have been prepared for use in fuel cells and storage batteries, respectively. Nickel ferrite is used as a magnetic core for various types of electrical equipment such as antennas and transformers.
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Typical compounds of nickel in nature, where it occurs mainly as a mineral conjugated with arsenic, antimony, and sulfur, are nickel sulfide, NiS; nickel arsenide, NiAs; nickel antimony, NiSb; nickel diarsenide, NiAs
; nickel thioarsenite, NiAsS; and nickel thioantimonide, NiSbS. In nickel sulfide, it is in the +2 oxidation state, but in all the other mentioned compounds it is in the +3 state.
. This compound, in which nickel exhibits a zero oxidation state, is used mainly as a carbon monoxide carrier in the synthesis of acrylate (a compound used in the production of plastics) from acetylene and alcohol. It was the first discovered in a class of compounds called metal carbonyls (1890). A colorless, volatile liquid formed by the action of carbon monoxide with split nickel and is characterized by an electronic configuration in which a nickel atom is surrounded by 36 electrons. This type of configuration is completely comparable to that of a noble gas atom. Nuclear symbol notation is a way of identifying isotopes of elements. Here are two ways to write kernel notation, along with examples.
Essentially, a nuclear symbol is a type of shorthand notation that identifies an element (by symbol or atomic number) and the element’s mass number. The mass number is the total number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) in the nucleus of an atom. Isotopes of an element have different mass numbers because they contain different numbers of neutrons.
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There are two ways to write symbols. The first is just the name of the element or symbol, followed by a hyphen and the block number. For example, carbon-14 or C-14 both denote isotopes of carbon with 14 nucleons. Another method, sometimes called AZE or AZKS notation, lists the block number as a superscript and the atomic number as a subscript before the element symbol. Ideally, the mass number should be directly above the atomic number, but the two numbers do not match in regular text. The general form for the notation is:
The number of electrons is not included in nuclear notation because electrons are not present in the nucleus. That being said, the ions of an isotope can be written as the nuclear symbol and then the charge as a superscript. E.g,
Other typical problems require you to find the number of neutrons in an atom using its nuclear symbol. For example, find the number of neutrons in an atom
This question tests your understanding of the parts of nuclear notation. The number 18 is A or the sum of protons and neutrons. The number 8 is the atomic number or the number of protons.
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You can easily use other nuclear symbols, although you will need the periodic table. For example, find the number of neutrons in an atom of uranium-238.
“238” is the mass number of A (proton + neutron) and you know the element is uranium (U), but you need to look up its atomic number Z. From the periodic table, the atomic number of uranium is 92.
Note that uranium-238 is the most common isotope of uranium, although it contains variable numbers of protons and neutrons. For lighter elements, the most stable and abundant isotope has an equal number of protons and neutrons. It is important to know how to distinguish an atom of one element from an atom of another element. Elements are pure substances that make up matter, so each element has its own name. Element names are also represented by unique one- or two-letter symbols, such as H for hydrogen, C for carbon, or He for helium. However, it would be more efficient if these names could be used to determine the number of protons and neutrons in an atom. This is where atomic numbers and mass numbers come in handy.
Image (PageIndex): Each element has a unique number of protons. Sulfur has 16 protons, silicon has 14 protons, and gold has 79 protons. Image used with permission (public domain for sulfur and silicon, gold licensed by CC-BI-SA-NC-ND; Alist-hp).
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An ical symbol is a one- or two-letter element symbol. Some examples of atomic symbols are O for oxygen, Zn for zinc, and Fe for iron. The first letter of the symbol is always capitalized. If
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