# What Times What Equals 17

What Times What Equals 17 – In astronomy, magnitude is usually a measure of the brightness of an object within a defined passband. An imprecise but systematic determination of the scale of an object was introduced in antiquity by Hipparchus.

Magnitude values ​​are unitless. This scale is logarithmic and defined so that a 1st magnitude star is exactly 100 times brighter than his 6th magnitude star. Therefore, each step of 1 magnitude is about 2.512 times brighter than 100 5 ≈ 2.512 ]}1 magnitude. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value, with the brightest objects reaching negative values.

## What Times What Equals 17

Astronomers use his two different definitions of magnitude: apparent magnitude and absolute magnitude. Apparent magnitude (m) is the brightness of an object as seen from Earth in the night sky. The size of the device is determined by the intrinsic brightness of the object, the distance to the object, and the dimming that reduces the brightness. Absolute magnitude (M) describes the intrinsic luminosity emitted by an object and is defined as the magnitude that an object would have if it were located at a given distance from Earth (10 parsecs for stars). A more complex definition of absolute magnitude is used for planets and small bodies in the solar system, based on the observer’s brightness in 1 AU from the Sun.

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The Sun has a magnitude of -27 and Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, has a magnitude of -1.46. Vus’ brightest hour is -5. The International Space Station (ISS) occasionally reaches magnitude 6.

Amateur astronomers usually describe the darkness of the sky in terms of a finite magnitude, the apparent magnitude of the faintest star visible to the naked eye. In the dark, people can see stars of magnitude 6 and below.

Brightness is actually a measure of illuminance and can also be measured in photometric units such as lux.

The Greek astronomer Hipparchus compiled a catalog recording the apparent brightness of stars in the second century BC. In the 2nd century AD, the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy classified stars according to his six-grade scale, coining the term magnitude.

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To the naked eye, more prominent stars like Sirius and Arcturus appear larger than less bright stars like Mizar, which in turn appear larger than really faint stars like Arcor. In 1736, mathematician John Kell described the ancient grading system as seen by the naked eye:

Stars appear to have different magnitudes, not because they really are, but because they are not all equally distant from us. [Note 1] The closest star has better luminosity and magnitude. Stars that are farther away emit less light and appear smaller to the eye. Classification of stars according to order and merit. The first class, which includes those closest to us, is called the First Great Star. Next to it he is followed by stars of 2nd magnitude until he reaches his 6th magnitude, which corresponds to the smallest star visible to the naked eye. Because all other stars, which can only be seen with the help of telescopes and are called telescopes, are not counted among these six orders. However, it is generally accepted by astronomers to classify stars into his six magnitudes. But do not judge that a particular star needs to be ranked according to a particular size he is one of six. And indeed, there are as many Orders of the Star as there are stars, some of which have the same magnitude and luminosity. And among the stars that are considered the brightest class, there are different magnitudes. Because Sirius and Arcturus are brighter than the stars of Aldebaran, Bull’s Eye, or Spica, respectively. But all of these stars are among the first magnitude stars. And there are also moderate stars that are classified differently by different astronomers. Some put the same star in one class, others in another. Example: A small dog, counted by Ptolemy as a star of the first order, was placed by Tyhon in a great star of the second order. So not really first or second class, but this he has to rank somewhere between the two. [3]

Note that the brighter the star, the lower the magnitude. A bright “first magnitude” star is a “first magnitude” star, while a star invisible to the naked eye is a “sixth magnitude” or “sixth magnitude” star. This system simply divided the star brightness into six different groups, but did not take into account variations in brightness within the groups.

Tycho Brahe attempted to directly measure the “magnitude” of a star by its angular magnitude. In theory, this meant that a star’s magnitude could be determined by subjective judgment, as explained in the quote above. He states that the diameter of the first large star is his 2 arcmin (2′) (1/30 of a degree or

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The development of telescopes has taught us that these large sizes are an illusion and that stars appear smaller through telescopes. However, early telescopes produced false disk-shaped star images, with brighter stars larger and dimmer stars smaller. Astronomers from Galileo to Jack Cassini mistook these false disks for the physical bodies of stars, and so continued to think of size in terms of the physical size of stars well into the eighth century.

Johannes Hevelius produced a very accurate table of stellar sizes measured with telescopes, but the range of diameters currently measured ranges from a little over 6 seconds for 1st magnitude arcs to less than 2 seconds for 6th magnitude arcs.

By the time of William Herschel, astronomers were aware that stellar telescope discs were fakes and about telescope capabilities and star brightness, but they were still talking about star size, not brightness.

Even into the late ninth century, the size system continued to be described in terms of his six classes defined by unit sizes.

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There are no rules for classifying stars other than the observer’s judgment. This is why some astronomers consider him 1st magnitude and others his 2nd magnitude. [7]

However, in the mid-ninth century, astronomers used stellar parallax to measure distances to stars and realized that they were actually far enough away to appear as point sources of light. After the understanding of light diffraction and astrovision progressed, astronomers fully understood that the apparent dimensions of stars were falsified and how those dimensions depended on the intensity of the light coming from the star (the brightness of the star, which can be measured in units such as watts per centimeter, for example).

Early photometric measurements (e.g., using light to project artificial “stars” into the telescope’s field of view to match their brightness with real stars) demonstrated that 1st magnitude stars are about 100 times brighter than 6th magnitude stars.

Thus, in 1856 Norman Pogson of Oxford proposed that between the five magnitudes he adopted a logarithmic scale of 5√100 ≈ 2.512 so that the five magnitude steps corresponded exactly to a visibility coefficient of 100.

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Each interval of one magnitude corresponds to He 5√100, or approximately 2,512 times the change in brightness. As a result, the 1st magnitude star is about 2.5 times brighter than his 2nd magnitude star.

This is a modern magnitude system that measures the brightness of stars rather than their individual size. Using this logarithmic scale, stars can be brighter than the “first class”, so Arcturus or Vega has magnitude 0 and Sirius has magnitude -1.46.

As mentioned above, the scale works “inversely”, with negative magnitude objects brighter than positive magnitude objects. The more negative the value, the brighter the object.

Objects further to the left of this line are lighter, and objects further to the right are darker. Therefore, zero appears in the middle, the brightest object on the left edge, and the darkest object on the right edge.

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The difference between these concepts can be seen by comparing two stars. Betelgeuse (magnitude 0.5, absolute magnitude -5.8) emits thousands of times more light, but it is so far away that it appears slightly fainter in the sky than Alpha Kutauri A (magnitude 0.0, absolute magnitude 4.4).

On the modern logarithmic magnitude scale, two celestial bodies whose luminous flux (luminous intensity) from Earth is measured in units of power per unit area (e.g., watts per square meter, W m), one of which is used as a reference or baseline.

M 1 − mref = − 2.5 log 10 ⁡ ( F 1 Fref ) . -m_}=-2,5log_left(}}}}right).}

Notice why astronomers consistently use the term flux

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