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Radio waves are used for wireless communication, marine and aircraft navigation to transmit voice messages or data. Information is applied to an electromagnetic carrier wave using amplitude modulation (AM) or frequency modulation (FM) or in digital form (pulse modulation). Therefore, transmission is not a single frequency electromagnetic wave, but a frequency band whose width is proportional to the data density. It’s about 10,000 Hz for a phone, 20,000 Hz for high-fidelity audio, and five megahertz (MGs = one million hertz) for a high-definition television. This amplitude and reduced performance of electromagnetic waves define a lower frequency limit for radio waves around 10,000 Hz.
Which Statement Best Describes How Waves Carry Energy
Because electromagnetic radiation travels in straight lines in free space, in the late 19th century scientists questioned Italian physicist and inventor Guglielmo Marconi’s efforts to create long-distance radio. The curvature of the Earth limits visibility to about 30 km (19 mi) from the top of a 100-meter (330 ft) mountain. Marconi’s unexpected success in sending messages over 2,000 km (1,200 mi) led to the discovery of the Kennelly-Heaviside layer, known as the ionosphere. This region is a layer about 300 km (190 mi) thick, beginning about 100 km (60 mi) below the surface, where the atmosphere is partially ionized by the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation, leaving enough electrons and ions to affect radio waves. Due to the presence of the Sun, the height, width and degree of ionization of the stratospheric ionosphere vary from day to night and from summer to winter.
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Radio waves sent in a certain direction by the antennas are reflected back or reflected back to Earth through the ionosphere, as shown in Figure 5. They can bounce off the Earth and bounce off the ionosphere multiple times, making worldwide radio broadcasts possible. Long distance communication is called ground wave. This type of electromagnetic wave closely follows the surface of the earth, especially over water, as a result of the wave’s interaction with the earth’s crust. The range of a Waller wave (1,600 km (1,000 mi)) and the bending and reflection of sky waves by the ionosphere depend on the frequency of the waves. The highest frequency radio wave that can be radiated from the ionosphere under normal ionospheric conditions is 40 MHz. To accommodate the large bandwidth of transmitted signals, television frequencies must exceed 40 MHz. Therefore, television transmitters should be placed on high towers or on top of hills.
As the radio wave travels from the transmitting antenna to the receiving antenna, it can be affected by reflections from buildings and other large obstacles. Such reflected parts of the wave occur when they reach the receiving antenna and interfere with the reception of the wave. Radio waves can penetrate non-conductive materials such as wood, brick and concrete very well. They cannot pass through electrical conductors such as water or metal. Above Ν = 40 MHz, deep space radio waves can penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere. Thus, it is possible to observe radio astronomy with ground-based telescopes.
When electromagnetic energy needs to be transmitted from one place to another with minimal energy loss and distortion, the waves are confined to a limited area by wires, coaxial cables, and waveguides in the microwave region. Undirected or wireless transmission is naturally preferred, as is the case with radio and television communications, where the locations of the receivers are not fixed. Cable TV, as the name suggests, is an exception. In this case, electromagnetic radiation is transmitted to users via a coaxial cable system from a public antenna or live broadcasting station. Protecting this directional transmission from interference ensures high-quality signals.
Of an electromagnetic wave (dashed lines) transmitted through a coaxial cable. There is a potential difference between internal and external conductors and therefore electric field lines
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Extending from one conductor to another, shown here in cross-section. Conductors carry reverse currents that produce magnetic field lines
The electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of propagation at any observed cross-section, as is characteristic of electromagnetic waves shown in Figure 2.
Field lines vary inversely with the frequency of the radiation. This change in direction of the fields does not change the direction of propagation along the conductors. If the region between the conductors consists of air or free space, the propagation speed is again the universal speed of light.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a combination of radio waves and strong magnetic fields to produce diagnostic images of parts of the human body and brain without obvious side effects. Therefore, this imaging method is more widely used in medicine (
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Very low frequency (ELF) waves affect submarine communication systems. The 5-100 Hz range is attractive for this application due to the weaker absorption of electromagnetic radiation at low frequencies compared to seawater and the prominent resonance of the natural cavity formed by the mantle and ionosphere. It travels in the form of a wave. A sound wave can be described by five characteristics. Let’s learn about it in this article.
The sound our ears hear is called sound. It’s the kind of energy that makes us listen. In our daily life, we hear several sounds around us. We know that sound travels in the form of waves. A wave is a vibrating disturbance in a medium that carries energy from one point to another without making direct contact between the two points. We can say that the wave is created by the vibration of the particles of the medium. There are two types of waves: Longitudinal and Transverse. Long wave: A wave in which the particles in the medium vibrate back and forth “in the same direction” as the wave travels. A substance can be a solid, liquid, or gas. Therefore, sound waves are long waves. Transverse waves: A wave in which the particles in the medium vibrate up and down at “right angles” to the direction the wave is traveling. These waves are produced only in solids and liquids, but not in gases. A long wave of sound compression and rarefied matter. A sound wave can be described by five characteristics: wavelength, amplitude, time period, frequency, and velocity or speed. 1. Wavelength Source: www.sites.google.com The shortest length of a sound wave is called the wavelength. This is a full wavelength. It is denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda). Sound waves are called wavelengths that are compressed and rare in the near field. Also, the distance between two continuous compression centers or two successive rarefaction centers is equal to a wavelength. Note: the distance between the compression centers and the adjacent contour is equal to half the wavelength. λ / 2. The SI unit for measuring wavelength is the meter. 2. Amplitude When a wave passes through a medium, the particles of the medium are temporarily displaced from their original undisturbed positions. The maximum displacement of the particles from their original undisturbed position when the wave passes through the medium is called the amplitude of the wave. In fact, amplitude is used to describe the size of a wave. The S.I. unit of measuring amplitude is the meter (m), but is sometimes also measured in centimeters. Did you know that the amplitude of a wave is equal to the amplitude of the vibrating body producing the wave? 3. Time Period The time required to produce one complete wave or cycle or cycles is called the time of the wave. Now one complete wave is produced by one complete vibration of the vibrating body. Thus, it is said to take time to complete one vibration. Denoted by the letter T, this is the second unit of the time scale. Why are speed and velocity not always equal in magnitude? 4. Source: www.media.openschool.com The frequency of a wave is the number of waves or complete cycles produced in one second. Since one complete wave is produced by one complete vibration of a vibrating body, the number of vibrations per second is called frequency. For example: if 10 waves or total vibrations are produced per second, the frequency of the waves will be 10 hertz or 10 cycles per second. Did you know that a wave’s frequency changes and stays the same as it passes through different substances? The S.I. unit of frequency is the hertz or
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